Amazona collaria


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Amazona collaria
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Yellow-billed Amazon, Yellow-billed Parrot
Spanish Amazona Jamaicana Piquiclara, Loro de Jamaica

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Koenig, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D.
This species is classified as Vulnerable because it has a small and fragmented range, with suitable habitat declining in extent, area and quality, primarily owing to logging and forest clearance for bauxite mining. Numbers are also declining because of trapping.

2012 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Amazona collaria is mainly found in wet areas of Jamaica (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). The largest populations occur from Cockpit Country to Mount Diablo and in the John Crow Mountains (Juniper and Parr 1998), and it is local in the Blue Mountains (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). It remains fairly common in suitable habitat, the population in Cockpit Country alone numbers 5,000 - 8,000 territorial pairs (Koenig 2001), but overall both range and population have decreased in the latter part of the 20th century (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits mid-level, wet limestone forest at elevations up to 1,200 m, flying considerable distances to feeding areas that include sea-level plantations (Collar 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Breeding takes place from March to August, in tree-cavities and, occasionally, rock-crevices (Collar 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000).

Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Recent declines are probably attributable to shifting cultivation, forest clearance, bauxite mining, and trapping for the cage-bird trade and local consumption (Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). The cutting of trees to trap nestlings may significantly reduce available nest-sites (Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). The primary cause of nest failure is poaching for use as a cage-bird, compounded by a loss of nest trees owing to illegal timber extraction in bauxite mining areas (S. Koenig in litt. 2007). Non-native Amazona parrots occasionally escape during the hurricane season and have had to be shot to prevent hybridisation with this species (S. Koenig in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It has been listed as threatened in Jamaica since 1986 (Juniper and Parr 1998). Since 1995, there has been work to delineate its range, estimate population sizes, identify factors limiting reproductive performance and train local people in research methods and techniques for long-term monitoring (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Habitat in the Blue and John Crow Mountains has been declared a national park, but enforcement and management are weak (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). There is an on-going, high profile public awareness campaign to prevent bauxite mining in Cockpit Country by having the area declared "closed to mining" by Minister's Discretion (S. Koenig in litt. 2007). Discussions have initiated which will hopefully lead to the banning of the importation of psittacines to Jamaica (S. Koenig in litt. 2007).  Captive breeding populations exist

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to delineate range and assess numbers (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Declare Cockpit Country "closed to mining". Ensure de facto protection of the national park in the Blue and John Crow Mountains (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Design and implement education programmes in and adjacent to the species's occupied range (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000) and develop captive breeding populations. Enforce its legal protection. Ban the import of non-native parrots.

Citation: BirdLife International 2013. Amazona collaria. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 28 August 2015.
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