Amazona collaria 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Amazona collaria
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Yellow-billed Amazon, Yellow-billed Parrot
Spanish Amazona Jamaicana Piquiclara, Loro de Jamaica
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 28 cm. Chunky, green parrot with white facial markings. Green with white lores and frontal bar, blue forecrown, pink throat and upper breast, bluish primaries, and yellow bill. Similar spp. Black-billed Parrot A. agilis is smaller, duller and greener, has black bill, and flies with shallower and faster wing beats. Voice High tah-tah-eeeeep and bugling tuk-tuk-tuk-taaah in flight lower-pitched than A. agilis. Hints Birds are usually seen in pairs or small flocks, occasionally with A. agilis, and best located by call.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Koenig, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D.
This species is classified as Vulnerable because it has a small and fragmented range, with suitable habitat declining in extent, area and quality, primarily owing to logging and forest clearance for bauxite mining. Numbers are also declining because of trapping.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Vulnerable (VU)
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Near Threatened (NT)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Amazona collaria is mainly found in wet areas of Jamaica (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). The largest populations occur from Cockpit Country to Mount Diablo and in the John Crow Mountains (Juniper and Parr 1998), and it is local in the Blue Mountains (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). It remains fairly common in suitable habitat, the population in Cockpit Country alone numbers 5,000 - 8,000 territorial pairs (Koenig 2001), but overall both range and population have decreased in the latter part of the 20th century (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 5400
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1200
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  There are no new data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be declining at a slow rate, as a result of habitat loss and degradation and trapping.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 6000-15000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 1 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits mid-level, wet limestone forest at elevations up to 1,200 m, flying considerable distances to feeding areas that include sea-level plantations (Collar 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Breeding takes place from March to August, in tree-cavities and, occasionally, rock-crevices (Collar 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 12.3
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Recent declines are probably attributable to shifting cultivation, forest clearance, bauxite mining, and trapping for the cage-bird trade and local consumption (Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). The cutting of trees to trap nestlings may significantly reduce available nest-sites (Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). The primary cause of nest failure is poaching for use as a cage-bird, compounded by a loss of nest trees owing to illegal timber extraction in bauxite mining areas (S. Koenig in litt. 2007). Non-native Amazona parrots occasionally escape during the hurricane season and have had to be shot to prevent hybridisation with this species (S. Koenig in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It has been listed as threatened in Jamaica since 1986 (Juniper and Parr 1998). Since 1995, there has been work to delineate its range, estimate population sizes, identify factors limiting reproductive performance and train local people in research methods and techniques for long-term monitoring (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Habitat in the Blue and John Crow Mountains has been declared a national park, but enforcement and management are weak (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). There is an on-going, high profile public awareness campaign to prevent bauxite mining in Cockpit Country by having the area declared "closed to mining" by Minister's Discretion (S. Koenig in litt. 2007). Discussions have initiated which will hopefully lead to the banning of the importation of psittacines to Jamaica (S. Koenig in litt. 2007).  Captive breeding populations exist

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to delineate range and assess numbers (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Declare Cockpit Country "closed to mining". Ensure de facto protection of the national park in the Blue and John Crow Mountains (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Design and implement education programmes in and adjacent to the species's occupied range (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000) and develop captive breeding populations. Enforce its legal protection. Ban the import of non-native parrots.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2013. Amazona collaria. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22686209A48047930. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
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