Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Hapalopsittaca fuertesi
Species Authority: (Chapman, 1912)
Common Name(s):
English Indigo-winged Parrot, Fuertes's Parrot
Spanish Lorito de Fuertes
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 24 cm. Chunky, mainly green parrot. Orange-red frontal bar, yellow forecrown and face, blue rear crown and nape. Green upperparts and wings with red shoulder and carpal, some blue in secondary coverts and dark bluish primaries. Yellow-olive breast, variable red central belly-patch, rest of underparts green. Red tail with violet tip. Immature has less yellow streaking and duller face. Similar spp. H. amazonina velezi has more red on head, yellow streaking on sides of head and green hindneck concolourous with mantle. Voice Flight call a gull-like disyllabic reh-enk

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): López-Lanús, B. & Salaman, P.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Capper, D., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Taylor, J.
This species has an extremely small range and population which has until recently been declining. These factors result in its classification as Critically Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Critically Endangered (CR)
2010 Critically Endangered (CR)
2009 Critically Endangered (CR)
2008 Critically Endangered (CR)
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)
2000 Critically Endangered (CR)
1996 Critically Endangered (CR)
1994 Critically Endangered (CR)
1988 Not Recognized (NR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has a highly restricted range on the west slope of the Central Andes of Colombia near the border of Quindío, Risaralda and Tolima. Until 2002 it was known with certainty only from the type-series collected at Laguneta and Santa Isabel in 1911. The species was rediscovered by Fundación ProAves in montane forest in Génova municipality, Quindío Department, where the largest group observed consisted of 25 birds and the total population was approximately 60 individuals. Recent searches in apparently suitable habitat surrounding Acaime have not been successful (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2008, B. López-Lanús in litt. 2000). In July 2002, the first confirmed sighting was made in the central Andes, close to Los Nevados National Park, when 14 birds were located in a small area of forest (Parr and Gilardi 2002). The population has increased to 160 individuals thanks to conservation efforts which have resulted in 87% hatching success and 95% fledging success amongst breeding birds in the Central Cordillera (Anon 2006).

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 100
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 1
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 2610
Upper elevation limit (metres): 3600
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The known global population has increased to 160 individuals thanks to ongoing conservation efforts, hence is placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  Current trends for this species are poorly known. It has evidently declined in the past but thanks to co-ordinated conservation efforts at the species's stronghold this decline has slowed and may have ceased. With this information in mind, an overall decline of 1-9% is estimated to have occurred over the last ten years.

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 50-249 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 1 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a poorly-known inhabitant of cloud-forest at elevations of 2,610-3,600 m, but mostly 3,300-3,500 m. The species is restricted to mature montane cloud forest with a high occurrence of mistletoe (berries are a key food source of the species). Studies since 2003 have gathered extensive information on the species's breeding and feeding ecology, with the nesting period taking place from January to May. The average clutch size is three eggs. Incubation is conducted solely by the female, although post-hatching care is biparental (Díaz 2006).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 6.9
Movement patterns: Altitudinal Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Clearance of forest in the region of the type-locality was already extensive in 1911, and very little habitat now remains. The species remains highly threatened by forest loss for cattle pasture and selective logging of mature trees (vital for nesting) for timber and firewood. Most mature trees with natural cavities have been selectively logged, creating a shortage of natural nesting sites.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It is protected in Acaime and Cañon del Quindío Natural Reserves. An area of 631 ha of core habitat was recently acquired by Fundación ProAves with the support of Fundación Loro Parque, American Bird Conservancy and IUCN Netherlands and will be managed as Loro Coroniazul Bird Reserve: surrounding municipality land is also being managed for the species (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2008). Another protected area, the Giles-Fuertesi Bird Reserve located in Cajamarca, was recently created with the support of Fundación Loro Parque and comprises nearly 300 ha at 3,200-3,700 m, including areas of cloud-forest (Anon. 2010, ABC 2012). This reserve will become a centre for research focussed on this species, including studies into its habitat use, behaviour and reproduction (Anon. 2010). Nest-boxes have been very successful at allowing high breeding success (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2008, Tovar Martínez 2009), and 20 were installed in the new Giles-Fuertesi Bird Reserve in January 2010 (Anon. 2010). However, they are generally being used by Golden-plumed Parakeet Leptosittaca branickii to an increasing extent, thus additional boxes are being constructed to reduce competition (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2008). A Species Conservation Plan was established in early 2008, and since 2005 the ProAves 'Parrot Bus' has been raising awareness through environmental education programmes in rural communities of the central Andes. There are no known individuals in captivity.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Investigate the possibility that it occurs near Santa Isabel in Los Nevados National Park and the adjacent Navarco Nature Reserve. Research its ecological requirements to enable effective management of remaining habitat. Ensure the effective management of Alto Quindío Acaime Natural Reserve (Snyder et al. 2000) and El Mirador Municipality Nature Reserve. Acquire private properties with core breeding population and protect the species from expanding pasturelands. Work with local communities in raising awareness and avoid possible trade of the species. Increase provision of nest boxes. Continue monitoring the population. Acquire and reforest pastureland with native trees.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2013. Hapalopsittaca fuertesi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22686163A50399655. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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