Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Pyrilia vulturina
Species Authority: (Kuhl, 1820)
Common Name(s):
English Vulturine Parrot
Gypopsitta vulturina BirdLife International (2008)
Gypopsitta vulturina Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Gypopsitta vulturina Stotz et al. (1996)
Gypopsitta vulturina BirdLife International (2004)
Gypopsitta vulturina Collar and Andrew (1988)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Use of the genus Pyrilia follows SACC (2008).

Identification information: 23 cm. Small, green parrot. Its head is bare and covered in dark bristles. Has a complete yellow feathered collar, with black on the nape and sides of neck. The rest of the body is predominantly green, with an orange-yellow shoulder and an olive yellow breast, black primaries and a blue tip to the tail. Immature has a feathered green head, and lacks the yellow collar and black bordering.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Lees, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Symes, A.

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and its dependence on primary forest and sensitivity to fragmentation, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Near Threatened (NT)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Pyrilia vulturina is endemic to north Brazil. Its range extends from the Rio Madeira east to Maranhão (del Hoyo et al. 1997). It is naturally rare, and may be restricted to the areas around major rivers within this region, which would mean its range size is overestimated (A. Lees in litt. 2011).

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 886000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend Justification:  This species is suspected to lose 37.1-54.8% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (21 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Although the species may have some susceptibility to hunting and/or trapping, it also appears to have some degree of tolerance of habitat degradation (A. Lees in litt 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by 30-49% over three generations.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species occupies both "terra firme" forest (with no flooding) and "várzea" (seasonally flooded forest). It is thought that its bare head may be an adaptation for feeding on large fruit, whose juice would mat feathers (del Hoyo et al. 1997).
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 6.9
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Whilst it shows some tolerance of habitat degradation, it may also be susceptible to hunting (A. Lees in litt. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Pyrilia vulturina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22686145A39024490. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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