||Santa Marta Parakeet, Santa Marta Conure
||Cotorra de Santa Marta, Periquito de Santa Marta
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||25 cm. Overall green parakeet with red frontal band, white orbital ring, maroon ear-coverts, red band on belly, red-orange carpal and primary coverts, blue primaries and red underside of tail. Similar spp. Red-fronted Parakeet Aratinga wagleri is larger, has more red on forecrown, all-green tail and different coloration on wings and belly. Voice Screeching descending flight calls. Soft chatterings from feeding birds.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Arndt, T., Boesman, P., Olarte, L., Salaman, P. & Olaciregui , C.
||Benstead, P., Capper, D., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A., Khwaja, N.
This species's range and small population are probably declining as a result of habitat loss. It therefore qualifies as Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Endangered (EN)
- 2008 – Endangered (EN)
- 2004 – Endangered (EN)
- 2000 – Endangered (EN)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Near Threatened (NT)
|Range Description:||Pyrrhura viridicata occurs only in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Flocks of 5-30 birds are observed daily or every few days (Salaman and Giles 1995, P. Boesman in litt. 1998, Snyder et al. 2000) on the relatively well-watched San Lorenzo Ridge. It is also known from Taquina, where specimens were collected in 1914 and the species was recorded commonly in 2010 (C. Olaciregui in litt. 2012), and a population on the west flank of the río Frío which was located in 2001 (Strewe and Navarro 2004). The area of land on the north slope of the massif within its altitudinal range is less than 600 km2, within which as little as 200 km2 of primary forest may remain (T. Arndt in litt. 1993). Total remaining primary forest habitat calculated to cover 680 km2 (Botero-Delgadillo et al. 2012). Until recently it was judged to be fairly common (Ridgely 1981, Hilty and Brown 1986), but it has surely become less abundant. The total population is usually estimated to be 5,000-10,000 individuals (Renjifo et al. 2002). Others believe that there are no more than 4,000-4,500 individuals, based on estimates of 120 birds at San Lorenzo and using forest cover estimates from satellite images to calculate remaining suitable habitat (Strewe 2005).|
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||1600|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||1800|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||2800|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population has long been estimated to number 5,000-10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 3,300-6,700 mature individuals. Population densities of 4·1–7·1 birds per km2 have been found (Botero-Delgadillo et al. 2012). Assuming that the 680 km2 habitat is fully occupied, total population is calculated to be 2,900–4,800 birds, equating to 1,933-3,200 mature individuals; however, with partial occupation fewer than 2,500 birds are likely to remain (Botero-Delgadillo et al. 2012).|
Trend Justification: A moderate and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||1900-3200||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||1-89|
Only 15% of the original vegetation in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta remains, albeit largely on the north slope where this species occurs (L. M. Renjifo pers. comm. 1993, 2000). The main current threat is the expansion of non-native tree plantations, such as those of pine and eucalyptus, along with on-going clearance of land for livestock farming (C. Olaciregui in litt. 2012). Historically, conversion of forest to marijuana and coca plantations was also a major threat (L. G. Olarte in litt. 1993, L. M. Renjifo pers. comm. 1993, J. Fjeldså verbally 2000, L. M. Renjifo pers. comm. 2000, C. Olaciregui in litt. 2012), which was compounded by the government spraying herbicides on the sierra (L. G. Olarte in litt. 1993, L. M. Renjifo pers. comm. 1993, 2000). Other threats that followed human immigration to the area from the 1950s onwards include logging and burning (Dinerstein et al. 1995, Snyder et al. 2000, Salazar and Strewe undated, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). It is known to be hunted in the río Frío valley, and in San Pedro district individuals in blackberry plantations have been shot. The species has not been found in the local bird trade (Strewe 2005).