Pyrrhura viridicata 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Pyrrhura viridicata Todd, 1913
Common Name(s):
English Santa Marta Parakeet, Santa Marta Conure
Spanish Cotorra de Santa Marta, Periquito de Santa Marta
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: 25 cm. Overall green parakeet with red frontal band, white orbital ring, maroon ear-coverts, red band on belly, red-orange carpal and primary coverts, blue primaries and red underside of tail. Similar spp. Red-fronted Parakeet Aratinga wagleri is larger, has more red on forecrown, all-green tail and different coloration on wings and belly. Voice Screeching descending flight calls. Soft chatterings from feeding birds.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Arndt, T., Boesman, P., Olarte, L., Salaman, P. & Olaciregui , C.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Capper, D., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C.J., Stuart, T., Symes, A., Khwaja, N.
This species's range and small population are probably declining as a result of habitat loss. It therefore qualifies as Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Pyrrhura viridicata occurs only in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Flocks of 5-30 birds are observed daily or every few days (Salaman and Giles 1995, P. Boesman in litt. 1998, Snyder et al. 2000) on the relatively well-watched San Lorenzo Ridge. It is also known from Taquina, where specimens were collected in 1914 and the species was recorded commonly in 2010 (C. Olaciregui in litt. 2012), and a population on the west flank of the río Frío which was located in 2001 (Strewe and Navarro 2004). The area of land on the north slope of the massif within its altitudinal range is less than 600 km2, within which as little as 200 km2 of primary forest may remain (T. Arndt in litt. 1993). Total remaining primary forest habitat calculated to cover 680 km2 (Botero-Delgadillo et al. 2012). Until recently it was judged to be fairly common (Ridgely 1981, Hilty and Brown 1986), but it has surely become less abundant. The total population is usually estimated to be 5,000-10,000 individuals (Renjifo et al. 2002). Others believe that there are no more than 4,000-4,500 individuals, based on estimates of 120 birds at San Lorenzo and using forest cover estimates from satellite images to calculate remaining suitable habitat (Strewe 2005).

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:1600
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:1Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):1800
Upper elevation limit (metres):2800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population has long been estimated to number 5,000-10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 3,300-6,700 mature individuals. Population densities of 4·1–7·1 birds per km2 have been found (Botero-Delgadillo et al. 2012). Assuming that the 680 km2 habitat is fully occupied, total population is calculated to be 2,900–4,800 birds, equating to 1,933-3,200 mature individuals; however, with partial occupation fewer than 2,500 birds are likely to remain (Botero-Delgadillo et al. 2012).

Trend Justification:  A moderate and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1900-3200Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:1Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):6
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Only 15% of the original vegetation in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta remains, albeit largely on the north slope where this species occurs (L. M. Renjifo pers. comm. 1993, 2000). The main current threat is the expansion of non-native tree plantations, such as those of pine and eucalyptus, along with on-going clearance of land for livestock farming (C. Olaciregui in litt. 2012). Historically, conversion of forest to marijuana and coca plantations was also a major threat (L. G. Olarte in litt. 1993, L. M. Renjifo pers. comm. 1993, J. Fjeldså verbally 2000, L. M. Renjifo pers. comm. 2000, C. Olaciregui in litt. 2012), which was compounded by the government spraying herbicides on the sierra (L. G. Olarte in litt. 1993, L. M. Renjifo pers. comm. 1993, 2000). Other threats that followed human immigration to the area from the 1950s onwards include logging and burning (Dinerstein et al. 1995, Snyder et al. 2000, Salazar and Strewe undated, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). It is known to be hunted in the río Frío valley, and in San Pedro district individuals in blackberry plantations have been shot. The species has not been found in the local bird trade (Strewe 2005).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Considered Endangered at the national level in Colombia (Renjifo et al. 2002). The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is protected by two national designations and is an international biosphere reserve (IUCN 1992), but this has not conserved the massif's ecosystems effectively. All known sites for the species lie within Indian reservations where indigenous people have management rights and it is not possible to control management or hunting (Strewe 2005). In 2006, 1,600 acres of northwest Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta were protected through the American Bird Conservancy, Fundación ProAves and Conservation International and renamed as El Dorado Nature Reserve (Anon. 2006). The reserve currently encompasses 2,250 acres. Within its boundaries, Fundación ProAves has overseen an on-going pine eradication project since 2006, removing thousands of trees and saplings and planting native trees appropriate to Santa Marta Parakeet's foraging and nesting requirements (C. Olaciregui in litt. 2012). Artificial nestboxes have been used since 2006 (Olaciregui and Borja 2011).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Estimate current population levels and the area of remaining suitable habitat (Snyder et al. 2000). Evaluate the state of all known populations, and localise new populations according to distribution models (C. Olaciregui in litt. 2012). Study its habitat tolerance and population densities in different forest-types (Snyder et al. 2000, Salazar and Strewe undated). Research its ecology, movements and conservation status (Snyder et al. 2000). Work with local communities and regional institutions to identify and prioritise conservation and management strategies (Salazar and Strewe undated). Establish education programmes working with local communities to combat hunting and persecution (Strewe 2005).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Pyrrhura viridicata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22685836A93088933. . Downloaded on 20 October 2017.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided