||Primolius couloni (P.L. Sclater, 1876)
Ara couloni ssp. couloni P.L. Sclater, 1876 — Stotz et al. (1996)
Ara couloni ssp. couloni P.L. Sclater, 1876 — Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Propyrrhura couloni (P.L. Sclater, 1876) — SACC (2005)
Propyrrhura couloni (P.L. Sclater, 1876) — del Hoyo et al. (1997)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||41 cm. Small, colourful macaw. Pale green body with blue edge of wing, primary coverts and flight feathers. Blue head with small grey bare face patch extending from bill around eye. Medium-sized grey bill. Red uppertail, shading to pale blue at tip. Underside of wings and tail dusky yellow. Similar spp. Blue-winged Macaw P. maracana has mostly green head with red front, pale face patch and dark bill. Voice in flight gives a soft rasping purrr or raaah, also a variety of high-pitched srieks and squawks.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Brightsmith, D., Gilardi, J., Herzog, S., Lee, A., Lloyd, H., Olmos, F. & Tobias, J.
||Benstead, P., Harding, M., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C.J., Symes, A.
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a small population which is declining owing to exploitation for the cagebird trade and deforestation.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2009 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Endangered (EN)
- 2005 – Endangered (EN)
- 2004 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||Primolius couloni occurs in eastern Peru, extreme western Brazil, and north-western Bolivia. In some locations within its range it is considered not uncommon, but in other areas it appears to be scarce, or even absent. It has been recorded throughout the year at some locations, but numbers elsewhere seem to vary seasonally and the species may wander in response to food availability, confounding attempts to draw conclusions about population density across its range. Estimating its population size is therefore notoriously difficult, but a recent review of all known records put the population at 9,200-46,000 individuals, considerably higher than previous estimates (Tobias and Brightsmith 2007). |
Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Peru
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||555000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||800|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|