Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Psittacula longicauda
Species Authority: (Boddaert, 1783)
Common Name(s):
English Long-tailed Parakeet
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Calvert, R., Taylor, J.
This forest-associated species occurs in the Sundaic lowlands where deforestation has been widespread in the recent past. It is consequently considered Near Threatened, because it is assumed to have experienced moderately rapid declines. It is not considered more threatened because it can use human-modified habitats.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Psittacula longicauda occurs in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, India (where it was abundant, although little recent information is available), Coco islands, Myanmar, peninsular Thailand, Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan (including the Natuna Islands), Sumatra (including the Riau Islands), Indonesia and Brunei (widespread) (BirdLife International 2001).

Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Singapore; Thailand
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 877000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 300
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as very common and widespread in southern Borneo, locally common in Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia and common in Brunei, the Andaman islands and the Nicobar islands (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Trend Justification:  Forest destruction in the Sundaic lowlands of Indonesia, and in Thailand and Malaysia has been extensive (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), but the species remains numerous in a number of areas due to its capacity to forage away from forested areas and nest communally. Hence, declines are estimated to have been in the order of 20-30% in the past ten years.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It occurs in coastal and lowland areas to at least 300 m, preferring extreme lowland swamp (including peatswamp) forest in the Thai-Malay Peninsula, although it avoids primary forest in Borneo. In addition, it has been recorded from many types of lowland evergreen forest including mangroves, oil-palm plantations and coconut groves. It prefers forest edge, including near cultivated areas and will visit parks and gardens. It is gregarious and flocks of thousands have been reported from the Nicobars and Borneo, although smaller numbers are more common. It makes poorly understood movements, being abundant in a locality for a period, then absent for years. It feeds on fruit and nests communally, using tree cavities and laying 2-3 eggs in December-February.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 7.5
Movement patterns: Nomadic

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor the species in trade. Monitor habitat trends and rates of deforestation in the Sundaic lowlands using satellite images and remote sensing. Research the species's ecology to improve understanding of movements it makes. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable habitat at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and multiple use areas.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Psittacula longicauda. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22685513A37970166. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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