|Scientific Name:||Psittacula longicauda|
|Species Authority:||(Boddaert, 1783)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Calvert, R., Taylor, J.|
This forest-associated species occurs in the Sundaic lowlands where deforestation has been widespread in the recent past. It is consequently considered Near Threatened, because it is assumed to have experienced moderately rapid declines. It is not considered more threatened because it can use human-modified habitats.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Psittacula longicauda occurs in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, India (where it was abundant, although little recent information is available), Coco islands, Myanmar, peninsular Thailand, Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan (including the Natuna Islands), Sumatra (including the Riau Islands), Indonesia and Brunei (widespread) (BirdLife International 2001).|
Native:Brunei Darussalam; India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Singapore; Thailand
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||877000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||300|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as very common and widespread in southern Borneo, locally common in Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia and common in Brunei, the Andaman islands and the Nicobar islands (del Hoyo et al. 1997).
Trend Justification: Forest destruction in the Sundaic lowlands of Indonesia, and in Thailand and Malaysia has been extensive (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), but the species remains numerous in a number of areas due to its capacity to forage away from forested areas and nest communally. Hence, declines are estimated to have been in the order of 20-30% in the past ten years.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs in coastal and lowland areas to at least 300 m, preferring extreme lowland swamp (including peatswamp) forest in the Thai-Malay Peninsula, although it avoids primary forest in Borneo. In addition, it has been recorded from many types of lowland evergreen forest including mangroves, oil-palm plantations and coconut groves. It prefers forest edge, including near cultivated areas and will visit parks and gardens. It is gregarious and flocks of thousands have been reported from the Nicobars and Borneo, although smaller numbers are more common. It makes poorly understood movements, being abundant in a locality for a period, then absent for years. It feeds on fruit and nests communally, using tree cavities and laying 2-3 eggs in December-February.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||7.5|
|Major Threat(s):||Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor the species in trade. Monitor habitat trends and rates of deforestation in the Sundaic lowlands using satellite images and remote sensing. Research the species's ecology to improve understanding of movements it makes. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable habitat at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and multiple use areas.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Psittacula longicauda. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22685513A37970166. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.|
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