Cyanoramphus unicolor 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Cyanoramphus unicolor
Species Authority: (Lear, 1831)
Common Name(s):
English Antipodes Parakeet, Antipodes Green Parakeet, Antipodes Island Parakeet
Spanish Perico de las Antípodas
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 32 cm. Plump, almost all-green parrot. Green head, body with blue wing-coverts, and some flight feathers. Similar spp. Red-crowned Parakeet C. novaezelandiae has red crown, patch behind eye. Voice Wide range of chattering calls, lower-pitched than other Cyanoramphus species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Roberts, A. & Weeber, B.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Taylor, J.
Chance introductions of carnivorous mammals to the tiny predator-free islands where this species lives could quickly impact it. It is therefore classified as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Vulnerable (VU)
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Cyanoramphus unicolor is endemic to the uninhabited and protected islands of the Antipodes, New Zealand. It is common on the main island (20 km2) and Bollons Island (0.5 km2), and occurs in small numbers on Leeward (0.1 km2), Inner Windward (0.1 km2) and Archway (0.1 km2) islets. In 1978, the population was estimated at 2,000-3,000 birds (Taylor 1985). Population trends are unknown, but numbers are likely to be stable.

Countries occurrence:
New Zealand
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 21
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 23
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 1
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 300
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The total population is estimated to number 2,000-3,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,300-2,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  There are no new data on population trends, but the population is suspected to be stable.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 1300-2000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 5 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is found throughout the island habitats, but is most common in the tall, tussock grassland and sedges. These plants form the main part of the species's diet, supplemented with seeds, berries and flowers. It nests in underground burrows, often more than one metre long, in tussock or sedge (Taylor 1985). In captivity, clutch-size is between five and six, but only one to three fledged young are generally seen with adults in the wild. Young probably start breeding at one year of age. Birds may be quite long-lived - two recaptures from Antipodes Island were at least 10 years old (Heather and Robertson 1997).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 4.6
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Introduced mice may compete for food (A. D. Roberts in litt. 1999). The accidental introduction of predators, such as rats Rattus spp., cats and mustelids Mustela spp., is a potential threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. The Antipodes Islands are nature reserves, and landing is strictly by permit only. In 1907, 12 birds were released on Kapiti Island. They survived for c.20 years, but are no longer extant (Taylor 1985). The species is held widely in private aviaries, and adapts readily to captivity (Heather and Robertson 1997). A captive management plan is in place to safeguard the species (A. D. Roberts in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Commence regular monitoring (B. Weeber in litt. 2000) and develop the captive breeding programme for potential reintroductions. Eradicate mice (A. D. Roberts in litt. 1999).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2013. Cyanoramphus unicolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22685162A48010754. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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