Cyanoramphus unicolor


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Cyanoramphus unicolor
Species Authority: (Lear, 1831)
Common Name(s):
English Antipodes Parakeet, Antipodes Green Parakeet, Antipodes Island Parakeet
Spanish Perico de las Antípodas

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Roberts, A. & Weeber, B.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Taylor, J.
Chance introductions of carnivorous mammals to the tiny predator-free islands where this species lives could quickly impact it. It is therefore classified as Vulnerable.

2012 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Cyanoramphus unicolor is endemic to the uninhabited and protected islands of the Antipodes, New Zealand. It is common on the main island (20 km2) and Bollons Island (0.5 km2), and occurs in small numbers on Leeward (0.1 km2), Inner Windward (0.1 km2) and Archway (0.1 km2) islets. In 1978, the population was estimated at 2,000-3,000 birds (Taylor 1985). Population trends are unknown, but numbers are likely to be stable.

New Zealand
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The total population is estimated to number 2,000-3,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 1,300-2,000 mature individuals.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is found throughout the island habitats, but is most common in the tall, tussock grassland and sedges. These plants form the main part of the species's diet, supplemented with seeds, berries and flowers. It nests in underground burrows, often more than one metre long, in tussock or sedge (Taylor 1985). In captivity, clutch-size is between five and six, but only one to three fledged young are generally seen with adults in the wild. Young probably start breeding at one year of age. Birds may be quite long-lived - two recaptures from Antipodes Island were at least 10 years old (Heather and Robertson 1997).

Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Introduced mice may compete for food (A. D. Roberts in litt. 1999). The accidental introduction of predators, such as rats Rattus spp., cats and mustelids Mustela spp., is a potential threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. The Antipodes Islands are nature reserves, and landing is strictly by permit only. In 1907, 12 birds were released on Kapiti Island. They survived for c.20 years, but are no longer extant (Taylor 1985). The species is held widely in private aviaries, and adapts readily to captivity (Heather and Robertson 1997). A captive management plan is in place to safeguard the species (A. D. Roberts in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Commence regular monitoring (B. Weeber in litt. 2000) and develop the captive breeding programme for potential reintroductions. Eradicate mice (A. D. Roberts in litt. 1999).

Citation: BirdLife International 2013. Cyanoramphus unicolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 29 March 2015.
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