Cyanoramphus unicolor 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Cyanoramphus unicolor (Lear, 1831)
Common Name(s):
English Antipodes Parakeet, Antipodes Green Parakeet, Antipodes Island Parakeet
Spanish Perico de las Antípodas
Taxonomic Source(s): Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Identification information: 32 cm. Plump, almost all-green parrot. Green head, body with blue wing-coverts, and some flight feathers. Similar spp. Red-crowned Parakeet C. novaezelandiae has red crown, patch behind eye. Voice Wide range of chattering calls, lower-pitched than other Cyanoramphus species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Roberts, A., Weeber, B. & Greene, T.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Taylor, J., Stringer, C.
Chance introductions of carnivorous mammals to the tiny predator-free islands where this species lives could quickly impact it. It is therefore classified as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Cyanoramphus unicolor is endemic to the uninhabited and protected islands of the Antipodes, New Zealand. It is common on the main island (20 km2) and Bollons Island (0.5 km2), and occurs in small numbers on Leeward (0.1 km2), Inner Windward (0.1 km2) and Archway (0.1 km2) islets. In 1978, the population was estimated at 2,000-3,000 birds (Taylor 1985). Recent (2013) population estimates (Elliott et al. 2015) give an estimated point estimate of 2142 birds suggesting that the population is stable.

Countries occurrence:
New Zealand
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:21Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:44
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):NoExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:1Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number 2,000-3,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  There are no new data on population trends, but the population is suspected to be stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:2000-3000Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:5Continuing decline in subpopulations:No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is found throughout the island habitats, but is most common in the tall, tussock grassland and sedges, particularly near the coast, in well vegetated gullies and near substantial penguin colonies (Greene 1999, Greene and Miskelly 2014, Elliott et al. 2015). The leaves of these grasses form the main part of the species's diet, supplemented with seeds, berries, flowers, carrion and small storm petrels which they are known to kill (Taylor 1985, Greene 1999, Greene and Miskelly 2014, Elliott et al. 2015). It nests in underground burrows, often more than one metre long, in tussock or sedge (Taylor 1985, Greene 1999). In captivity, clutch-size is between five and six, but only one to three fledged young are generally seen with adults in the wild. A single nest has been located in the wild containing 5 eggs (Greene 1999). Young probably start breeding at one year of age. Birds may be quite long-lived - two recaptures from Antipodes Island were at least 10 years old (Heather and Robertson 2015).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Generation Length (years):4.6
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Introduced mice may compete for food (A. D. Roberts in litt. 1999). The accidental introduction of predators, such as rats Rattus spp., cats and mustelids Mustela spp., is a potential threat.  Known to hybridise with Reischek’s parakeets in captivity.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. The Antipodes Islands are nature reserves, and landing is strictly by permit only. Eradication of mice from the Antipodes was attempted in 2016 and success of this operation will be confirmed (or not) in 2018 (Department of Conservation 2016). Regular monitoring of the C. forbesi population has been underway since 2013 in preparation for the eradication attempt (T. Greene in litt. 2016).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Cyanoramphus unicolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22685162A93061319. . Downloaded on 25 September 2018.
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