|Scientific Name:||Zanda latirostris|
|Species Authority:||(Carnaby, 1948)|
Calyptorhynchus latirostris Carnaby, 1948
|Taxonomic Notes:||Zanda latirostris (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Calyptorhynchus.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Burbidge, A., Chapman, T., Mawson, P. & Saunders, D.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Garnett, S., McClellan, R., Taylor, J., Allinson, T & Symes, A.|
This species is listed as Endangered as it is assumed that the extensive loss of feeding and breeding habitat has resulted in a very rapid, and continuing, decline over three generations (43 years).
Zanda latirostris is endemic to south-western Australia. Between the 1970s and 1990s, the species disappeared from over one third of its range (Saunders 1990), with both local extinctions and reduced density in occupied areas, although it has recently been expanding into partially cleared forest habitat along the western fringe of its former range. Its current range covers a large area from Kalbarri southeast to Esperance (DEC, Western Australia 2007b). Most breeding occurs between Three Springs and the Stirling Range and areas to the west (Cataby to Tone Rover) (DEC, Western Australia 2007b). The total population is estimated at c.40,000 individuals (DEC, Western Australia 2007b), now divided into four subpopulations: northern wheatbelt, upper southern wheatbelt, south-eastern wheatbelt and Esperance coast (DEC, Western Australia 2007b). Surveys carried out in the Swan region show that the number of roosting birds declined of 37% between 2010 and 2011 (Kabat et al. 2012). The number of roosts with 151-500 cockatoos reduced by 42% and no roosts had more than 500 birds. There was a 66% increase in the number of roosts that had 150 or fewer birds. Statistical modelling suggests that the total population for the Swan Region in now between 5,177 and 8,629 birds. Initial trends based on roost counts suggest that declines are continuing at a similar rate to historical range contractions, i.e. >50% in 3 generations (Garnett et al. 2011).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total population is estimated to number c.40,000 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It forages in woodland, shrubland and heathland, usually breeding in areas receiving 350-700 mm of annual rainfall. Flocks of non-breeding birds then move to coastal areas, where pine plantations have become important feeding and roosting sites since the 1930s (DEC, Western Australia 2007b). It eats seeds of Hakea, Grevillea, Banksia, Allocasuarina, Eucalyptus, and Dryandra, but also feeds on the seeds of weeds and exotic pines, insect larvae and nectar (Saunders 1982, 1990, DEC, Western Australia 2007b). The species has also been recorded damaging persimmon and nut crops and the shoots of trees in orchards (DEC, Western Australia 2007b). Its breeding success is dependent on the presence of heathland feeding areas within 12 km of its nesting habitat (DEC, Western Australia 2007b). It nests in hollows in large eucalypts, primarily salmon gum E. salmonophloia and wandoo E. wandoo. It is also now frequently found in marri Corymbia calophylla, jarrah E. marginata and karri E. diversicolor forests (DEC, Western Australia 2007b). It is a long-lived species; females appear not breed until they are at least four years old (Saunders 1982, 1986, Saunders and Ingram 1998), and the oldest known female was at least 19 in 1989 (Saunders and Ingram 1998). Observations suggest that pairs remain together until the death of one of the partners (Saunders 1982). The eggs are usually laid between late July and late September (Saunders 1990), but laying may continue into October or November (Saunders and Ingram 1998). Less than half of the nest hollows available in an area of breeding habitat may remain unoccupied due to aggressive interactions between females during the selection and preparation of hollows (Saunders 1982). It is known that some females return to the same nest hollows in successive years (Saunders 1982, 1990). The species usually lays two eggs, although pairs rarely fledge two young, the second to hatch usually dying within 48 hours (Saunders 1982). The incubation period for four nests was found to be 28-29 days (Saunders 1982). Juveniles remain with their parents until they return to the breeding area at the start of the following season, and in some cases may associate with their parents for longer (Saunders 1982). This behaviour may be linked with the acquisition of knowledge and skills required for foraging (Saunders 1982).|
|Major Threat(s):||Since the 1950s, most feeding habitat for breeding birds has been cleared for agriculture. Remnants are fragmented, threatened by rising soil salinity and weed invasion, and are often so far from nesting areas that growth rate and survival of nestlings are affected and eventually breeding ceases altogether. Fires and the introduced plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi have also destroyed large tracts of suitable habitat. Breeding habitat has also been extensively cleared and, for at least 60 years, there has been little regeneration of nest trees because of grazing by sheep and rabbits. In the district of Coomallo Creek, between 1969 and 1982, a decrease in the percentage cover of native vegetation from 67% to 34% coincided with a decrease in the breeding population of the species by one third (Saunders 1986). As habitat is cleared, the species is likely to become more susceptible to human-related threats such as collisions with cars and shooting (Saunders 1982). Many patches of native habitat are situated near human settlements and traversed by roads and railway lines (Saunders 1990), and birds may become increasingly reliant on commercial crops (Saunders 1982). As habitat becomes patchy, local populations may fail to locate suitable feeding areas (Saunders 1990). The species' long pair bonds and high breeding-site fidelity may mean that birds do not disperse following disturbance and may persist at the same breeding sites until all habitat in an area is cleared or the local population dies out (Saunders 1982). Clearing for agriculture in the wheatbelt has left little kwongan vegetation, which the species requires for feeding, adjacent to the woodland patches in which it nests (Saunders and Ingram 1998). Nest-hollow availability, though not currently limiting, is likely to become so in the future with feral bees and other cockatoo species competing successfully for hollows. The species may be affected by nest hollow competition by the Galah Eolophus roseicapilla (Saunders 1982, Saunders 1990). This species may damage unguarded eggs, and such interference caused the failure of 7% of recorded nesting attempts in one area during the 1970s (Saunders 1990). Much of the feeding habitat of non-breeding birds has been cleared, and many birds from the northern wheatbelt now seasonally feed largely on pines. These pines have now reached maturity, and once they are harvested this will result in a possible food shortage. Nest-robbing for domestic trade has declined, but damage to nest hollows occurs when birds are taken for illegal export. In October 2009 an unknown disease killed up to 23 females in a single breeding colony at Koobabbie (Garnett et al. 2011). A heatwave in January 2010 is known to have killed flocks of 63 and 145 birds near Hopetoun and 57 birds were killed and 24 injured by a hailstorm in March 2010 (Saunders et al. 2011).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. BirdLife Australia (formerly Birds Australia), with the support of the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC), carries out annual roost surveys in the Perth region (kabat et al. 2012). In 2002, a Recovery Plan was put in place by the Department of Environment and Conservation (Cale 2003). A revised recovery plan is in the final stages of completion. BirdLife Australia (formerly Birds Australia) instigated its Carnaby’s Black-Cockatoo Recovery Project in 2000 (Garnett et al. 2011). The species is protected from hunting and persecution by law (DEC, Western Australia 2007b). Management actions completed or under way include the identification and protection of significant breeding areas, particularly stands of E. salmonophloia, protection and maintenance of known nests, re-establishment of feeding habitat, notably with Banksia, cooperation between conservation authorities and the avicultural industry, including improvement of husbandry techniques for keeping the species in captivity, management of captive-breeding stock and refinement of DNA fingerprinting in order to identify the source of all captive birds, distinguish any subpopulations and determine any loss of genetic diversity within regions or subpopulations. A recovery plan has been prepared for the species (DEC, Western Australia 2007b). In 2007, the Government of Western Australia produced an information sheet with details of the species's status and non-lethal control methods for agriculturalists and orchardists, e.g. exclusion netting (DEC, Western Australia 2007b). Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation throughout its range. Quantify the level and extent of capture for trade. Continue restoration of habitat for breeding birds. Create native habitat corridors to link areas of native vegetation, especially in extensively cleared agricultural areas such as the Western Australian wheatbelt (Saunders 1990). Satisfy avicultural demand with a collaborative captive-breeding programme. Protect nesting trees and promote regeneration by exclusion of livestock and rabbits (DEC, Western Australia 2007b).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2013. Zanda latirostris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 August 2015.|
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