Charmosyna diadema 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Charmosyna diadema
Species Authority: (Verreaux & Des Murs, 1860)
Common Name(s):
English New Caledonian Lorikeet
Spanish Lori Diadema
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 19 cm. Bright green lorikeet. Green patterned with deep blue on crown and thighs, yellow face, red vent, red-and-black at base of yellow-tipped tail. Similar spp. Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus is much larger and has dark blue head and red breast. Voice Unknown but probably very high-pitched screech as congeners, louder than that of Red-faced Parrotfinch Erythrura psittacea. Hints Check flowering trees in montane forest or possibly lowland semi-deciduous forest. Congeners often fly low over forest ridges, at dawn and dusk, calling repeatedly.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Chartendrault, V., Rouys, S., Spaggiari, J., Theuerkauf, J. & Gilardi, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Derhé, M., Dutson, G., Ekstrom, J., Stattersfield, A. & Symes, A.
This species has not been recorded with certainty since 1913, despite specific searches in 1998, and it may have declined as a result of a number of putative threats. However, it cannot be assumed to have gone Extinct, because there were local reports in the 1950s and in 1976, and lorikeets in this genus are notoriously difficult to detect, being unobtrusive and nomadic, so further surveys are required. Any remaining population is likely to be tiny, and for these reasons it is treated as Critically Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Critically Endangered (CR)
2010 Critically Endangered (CR)
2009 Critically Endangered (CR)
2008 Critically Endangered (CR)
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)
2000 Critically Endangered (CR)
1996 Endangered (EN)
1994 Endangered (EN)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Charmosyna diadema is known from two specimens collected in 1859, and another collected, but not preserved, in 1913 on New Caledonia (to France) (Sarasin 1913, Forshaw 1989). The first specimens are from an unknown locality and the 1913 record from "the forests behind Oubatche" which corresponds to Mt Ignambi. There are unconfirmed reports from the 1880s to the 1920s (Layard and Layard 1882, Stokes 1980), and an experienced forester reported two birds in 1953 or 1954 in the central mountains and again in 1976, west of Mt Panié (Stokes 1980). However, in 1998 there were no records during several months of specific searching, including on Mt Ignambi (Ekstrom et al. 2000, Ekstrom et al. 2002).

Countries occurrence:
New Caledonia
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 1
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Any remaining population is assumed to be tiny (numbering fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals), with no reports since 1976, despite recent searches in 1998.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 1-49 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The earliest reports were that it inhabited forest and occasionally fed in Erythrina trees (Layard and Layard 1882). The 1953-1954 and 1976 reports were from Melaleuca savanna/humid forest ecotone, while the 1920s report was from low scrubland (Stokes 1980, Forshaw 1989). Most closely-related species are nomadic and occur primarily in montane forest, but range into lowland forests, for which they may have a seasonal dependence (Forshaw 1989).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 3.7
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Montane humid forest is not under threat, but it is possible that this species has a requirement for other habitats, some of which, notably lowland semi-deciduous forests, have nearly disappeared from the island (Ekstrom et al. 2000, Ekstrom et al. 2002). Several Charmosyna lorikeets have undergone severe population declines or fluctuations of unknown cause (Forshaw 1989). It is possible that introduced disease (such as avian malaria) or more likely mammals (notably rats) may have been a cause of decline (Bregulla 1992, Ekstrom et al. 2000, Ekstrom et al. 2002).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. The Mt Panié massif, one of the most likely sites where it may still occur, is a floral reserve where the habitat is protected but hunting is permitted (Jaffré et al. 1998). Two recent conservation reviews have recommended that this reserve is upgraded to a special faunal and floral reserve and also extended to include Mts Colnett and Ignambi to the north as one contiguous forest block (Maruia/CI 1998, Ekstrom et al. 2000). No new records were obtained during 500 man-days of bird censuses between 2002 and 2007 (J. Theuerkauf, S. Rouys and V. Chartendrault in litt. 2007). A total of 120 locals interviewed between 2003 and 2006 did not provide any credible reports (J. Theuerkauf, S. Rouys and V. Chartendrault in litt. 2007). Funds have been attained to carry on the search until 2011.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey, if cost effective, other suitable mountains, particularly in the north-east and the Bokoua massif (Ekstrom et al. 2000). Publicise the search for this species among forest workers and villagers (Ekstrom et al. 2000) through the "Wanted" campaign to maximise reactivity of the unofficial observer network. Advocate upgrading and extension of Mt Panié floral reserve (Ekstrom et al. 2000, Ekstrom et al. 2002).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2013. Charmosyna diadema. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22684689A50399394. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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