Vini peruviana 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Vini peruviana (Müller, 1776)
Common Name(s):
English Blue Lorikeet, Tahitian Lorikeet, Violet Lorikeet
Spanish Lori Monjita
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: 18 cm. Chunky lorikeet mostly very dark blue (often looks black) with white cheeks and bib. Red bill, eyes and feet. Voice Very high-pitched hissing screech scheee-scheee, usually doubled.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Pilgrim, J. & Gouni, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Derhé, M., Dutson, G., Harding, M., O'Brien, A., Shutes, S. & Stattersfield, A.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small and fragmented island distribution and is likely to continue to decline owing to ongoing depredation by black rats and, to a lesser extent, cats. However, there is some evidence that the population is stable, in which case it would qualify for a lower threat category.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Vini peruviana is widely but unevenly distributed in south-east Polynesia where it has been recorded from c.20 islands, but is now extinct on several of these (Holyoak and Thibault 1984). Its range includes the Society Islands (formerly all), the northern atolls of the Tuamotu Archipelago (both French Polynesia), and Aitutaki (Cook Islands). In the Society Islands, there were possibly up to 250 and 350-400 pairs on Motu One and Manuae respectively in 1973 (Holyoak and Thibault 1984), and it has been observed on Maupihaa in 1999, where it was thought to have been extinct (either a rediscovered subpopulation or a recent recolonisation) (Te Manu 1999 27: 1, Te Manu 1999 28: 3). In the Tuamotus, there are relatively recent records (2006 estimates in brackets from Raust and Ziembicki [2006]) from Kaukura (1,000), Rangiroa (1,000), Arutua (500), Apataki (200), Tikehau (50) (Holyoak and Thibault 1984, Lovegrove et al. 1989) and Tiamanu Motu in Apataki atoll where a minimum 300 individuals were estimated in 1989 (this subpopulation being allegedly smaller than 10 years previously) (Lovegrove et al. 1989). On Aitutaki, where it was probably introduced, numbers have been estimated at under 500 pairs (Wilson 1993), 2,400 individuals and 1,000 individuals (Raust and Ziembicki 2006). The apparent differences may be attributable to differing census techniques (G. McCormack verbally 1999). Following the devastation of Cyclone Pat on Aitutaki in 2010, the population was estimated at c.1,400 birds by distance sampling (Jennings 2011).

Countries occurrence:
Cook Islands; French Polynesia
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:75500
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:6-10Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:When recent survey data is combined, the global population is estimated at around 7,000-9,000 individuals, or perhaps 5,000-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  There are few data on population trends; however, the species has been gradually lost from each island where cats, black rats or Swamp Harriers have colonised. A slow to moderate population decline is therefore suspected.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:5000-7000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is typically found in lowland forest, mixed stands of native and cultivated trees, flowering plants, coconut, and banana plantations and gardens, where it feeds on nectar, soft fruit and flowers (Pratt et al. 1987, Collar 1997).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):5.1
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species's extinction from many islands is most likely due to predation by black rat Rattus rattus and to a lesser extent, feral cats Felis catus (Lovegrove et al. 1989); its extinction from Makatea in the Tuamotus could have been accelerated by a particularly violent hurricane (Thibault and Guyot 1987). Its range reduction in the Society Islands correlates with the spread of the introduced Swamp Harrier Circus approximans (Holyoak and Thibault 1984). The accidental introduction of black rats to the islands where Blue Lorikeet persists is a continuing threat to the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. On Aitutaki, where extensive trapping in 1994 indicated the absence of R. rattus, the species has been surveyed several times including by local high-school students using a simplified technique (McCormack 1997).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to ascertain its continuing presence and numbers on known islands. Continue monitoring the population on Aitutaki (G. McCormack verbally 1999). Establish more basic facts about the species's requirements, particularly those relating to feeding plants, in preparation for the re-establishment of populations on other suitable motus (Lovegrove et al. 1989). Undertake an educational programme on Apataki (Lovegrove et al. 1989) and on other islands where strong populations persist. Consider special protection of viable populations (Lovegrove et al. 1989). Prevent the arrival of Rattus rattus on Aitutaki and other important islands (J. Pilgrim in litt. 2002).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Vini peruviana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22684641A95212213. . Downloaded on 20 August 2018.
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