|Scientific Name:||Vini stepheni|
|Species Authority:||(North, 1908)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Identification information:||18 cm. Red-and-green parakeet. Dark green above shading to golden-yellow tip of tail. Red on cheeks and underparts, dark purple central belly. Belt across chest green at sides, purple in centre. Golden-yellow bill and eyes. Voice A shrill screech.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D1+2 ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Brooke, M., Hall, J. & Bell, B.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Mahood, S., Shutes, S., Stattersfield, A., Derhé, M.|
This species may prove to be the only member of its genus whose habitat and population size have been little affected by adverse changes to its environment. However, it qualifies as Vulnerable as it is found only on one small island, where it is at risk from the accidental introduction of alien species.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Vini stepheni is restricted to Henderson in the Pitcairn Islands (to UK), a small uninhabited, raised-reef island in the south-central Pacific Ocean. In 1987, the total population was estimated at between 720 and 1,820 individuals (Graves 1992); it is thought to be stable.|
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||37|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||41|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Number of Locations:||1|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 720-1,820 individuals, roughly equating to 480-1,200 mature individuals.
Trend Justification: Although no new data are available on population trends, the entire range of the species is well protected and no new threats are suspected. Hence, the species is suspected to be stable.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs in native forest, showing a preference for forest edge, and in coconut palms along beaches. It is a generalist feeder, consuming nectar, pollen and fruit from a wide variety of plants from beach-level to the plateau, although flowers from the plants Scaevola sericea and Timonius polygamus provide the main sources of nectar (Trevelyan 1995). Arthropods form part of the diet, including lepidopteran larvae found in the sporangia of the fern Phymatosorus (Trevelyan 1995).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||5|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||This species appears to have adapted to the presence of the only introduced predator, Pacific rat Rattus exulans (Trevelyan 1995). In August 2011, a rat eradication operation was carried out on Henderson Island to eradicate R. exulans from the island (J. Hall in litt. 2012). However, the accidental introduction of a more aggressive predator, such as another Rattus species, could be devastating, and introduced diseases such as avian malaria and pox are another potential threat. The introduction of exotic plant species could have serious consequences for the native vegetation (Waldren et al. 1995) and therefore for this species.|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. In 1988, Henderson was designated a World Heritage Site. Following a feasibility study (Brooke and Towns 2008) a rat eradication operation was carried out on Henderson island in August 2011 (J. Hall in litt. 2012). A follow-up monitoring expedition is planned for 2013 to assess the success of the rat eradication. Conservation Actions Proposed
Periodically resurvey to monitor numbers and trends. Ensure that further alien species are not accidentally introduced to Henderson. Establish a captive breeding population for use in future reintroduction and supplementation efforts.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2013. Vini stepheni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22684636A48119970. . Downloaded on 14 February 2016.|
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