Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Cuculiformes Cuculidae

Scientific Name: Centropus rectunguis
Species Authority: Strickland, 1847
Common Name(s):
English Short-toed Coucal
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 43 cm. Medium-large, forest-dwelling coucal. Predominantly black, glossed purplish blue, with chestnut wings and mantle. Iris red, bill and legs black. Similar spp. Greater Coucal C. sinensis is larger, with proportionately longer tail, black plumage slightly less violet glossed. Voice Ponderous descending sequence of around five deep buup notes, like call of C. sinensis but deeper, slower, more resonant. Hints Search undergrowth of deep forest.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it is restricted to low-lying forest in a region where this habitat type is being cleared and degraded at such a rate that rapid and continuing population declines are likely.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Centropus rectunguis occurs from extreme southern Thailand, through Peninsular Malaysia to Malaysian Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak), Brunei and Indonesia (Kalimantan and Sumatra) (BirdLife International 2001). It appears to be rare in Thailand and Sumatra, but apparently locally fairly common in Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 1110000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1700
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  Intense logging pressure has led to rapid rates of lowland deforestation across the Sundaic region. As an apparent lowland forest specialist, this species is suspected to be declining rapidly as a result.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 10000-19999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It appears to be generally restricted to the undergrowth of lowland evergreen forest, where it occurs at low population densities.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 3.8
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): As a lowland forest specialist, this species must be in steep decline from habitat loss. Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion for agriculture and housing development, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas. Furthermore, the major fires of 1997-1998 affected 50,000 km2 of forest on Sumatra and Borneo.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Populations of this species are reported from several protected areas within its range, including Hala Bala Wildlife Sanctuary (Thailand), Taman Negara (Malaysia), Similajau National Park (Sarawak) and Gunung Palung National Park (Kalimantan).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys by listening for its call to investigate its altitudinal distribution, ecological requirements and the levels of threat it faces and thereby determine whether any specific conservation measures are required. Provide adequate support for the conservation of relevant lowland protected areas. Lobby for reduced logging of lowland forest in the Sundaic region.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Centropus rectunguis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22684222A37997097. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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