Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Cuculiformes Cuculidae

Scientific Name: Phaenicophaeus sumatranus
Species Authority: (Raffles, 1822)
Common Name(s):
English Chestnut-bellied Malkoha
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J.
This forest-dependent species is listed as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid decline owing to the extensive loss of lowland forests from large areas of the Sundaic lowlands. It is not considered more threatened because it can use secondary habitats and occurs at higher elevations.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Phaenicophaeus sumatranus occurs from south Tenasserim, Myanmar, through peninsular Thailand, Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei (uncommon), to Kalimantan (including the North Natuna Islands) and Sumatra, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001). Overall it remains relatively common through large parts of its range.

Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Singapore; Thailand
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 1280000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1200
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as generrally fairly common, although localy very common to uncomon in Thailand (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Trend Justification:  Forest destruction in the Sundaic lowlands of Indonesia has been extensive, and the situation is little different in Thailand and Malaysia. However, the species's ability to persist in second growth and at higher elevations, where forest destruction has been less severe, means that its decline has probably been moderately rapid; less rapid than for many lowland primary forest specialists.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits primary and secondary forest, including mangroves, durian plantations and peatswamp forest, to 1,000 m. It forages quietly and unobtrusively in the dense crowns of trees on a range of arthropods.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 4.2
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
None are known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Protect areas of lowland forest within the species's range. Enforce restrictions on agricultural encroachment and logging within such protected areas. Estimate population trends by calculating rates of forest loss within its range using satellite imagery and remote sensing techniques.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Phaenicophaeus sumatranus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22684095A37991092. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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