Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Coraciiformes Alcedinidae

Scientific Name: Todiramphus australasia
Species Authority: (Vieillot, 1818)
Common Name(s):
English Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher, Cinnamon-backed Kingfisher, Lesser Sunda Kingfisher
Halcyon australasia australasia Collar and Andrew (1988)
Todirhamphus australasia australasia Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Todirhamphus australasia australasia Collar et al. (1994)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Khwaja, N., Taylor, J.
This species is listed as Near Threatened as it has a moderately small and fragmented population which is likely to be declining owing to habitat loss.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Todiramphus australasia is restricted to four Endemic Bird Areas (Northern Nusa Tenggara, Sumba, Timor and Wetar, and the Banda Sea Islands, the first three with nominate australasia, the last one with subspecies dammeriana and odites), in Indonesia and Timor-Leste. Its distribution within this fairly wide area is, however, very patchy, and it is generally uncommon, although a recent visit to Wetar found the species to be widespread, occurring at all forest sites (Trainor et al. 2009).

Countries occurrence:
Indonesia; Timor-Leste
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 109000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 700
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it has been described as generally uncommon.

Trend Justification:  Data on trends are lacking, but a slow to moderate decline is suspected to have occurred as this species depends on closed-canopy forest, which has been affected by development and logging within its range.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is a closed-canopy specialist, occurring in monsoon forest at 0-700 m. It is also found in secondary habitats, such as gardens and cultivated areas, provided that sufficient canopy cover remains.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.8
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss and degradation seem likely to be considerable negative factors. On Wetar, pressure comes from agriculture, logging, mining and road-building, although much of the island is inaccessible (Trainor et al. 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
None are known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor populations across its range to determine whether declines are occurring. Conduct ecological studies to determine its habitat requirements and tolerance of secondary habitats. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable forest at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and community-led multiple use areas.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Todiramphus australasia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22683428A40546024. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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