Halcyon funebris ssp. funebris (Bonaparte, 1850) — Collar and Andrew (1988)
Todirhamphus funebris ssp. funebris Bonaparte, 1850 — Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Todirhamphus funebris ssp. funebris Bonaparte, 1850 — Collar et al. (1994)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||28 cm. Distinctive, piebald kingfisher. Stout, blackish bill. Blackish crown and ear-coverts, separated by long white stripe from bill to nape. White underparts and collar, with black patch on breast-sides. Rest of upperparts blackish to olive-green in male, olive-brown in female. Similar spp. Blue-and-white Kingfisher T. diops is smaller, bluer above, lacks white supercilium and has white spot on lores. Sacred Kingfisher T. sancta is less dark above, lacks white supercilium and has smaller bill. Voice Slow ki-ki-ki, or three loud, descending wails and slurred, nasal disyllables.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
This forest kingfisher is considered Vulnerable because its small population is undergoing a decline as a result of increasing habitat loss and degradation.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
- 1988 – Near Threatened (NT)
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.|
Trend Justification: Since the early 1990s when Halmahera remained largely forested, forest clearance has accelerated dramatically and it is suspected to have precipitated a population decline. The precise rate of forest loss and the inferred rate of population decline are not known.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2500-9999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|