Todiramphus funebris 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Coraciiformes Alcedinidae

Scientific Name: Todiramphus funebris
Species Authority: Bonaparte, 1850
Common Name(s):
English Sombre Kingfisher
Halcyon funebris funebris Collar and Andrew (1988)
Todirhamphus funebris funebris Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Todirhamphus funebris funebris Collar et al. (1994)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 28 cm. Distinctive, piebald kingfisher. Stout, blackish bill. Blackish crown and ear-coverts, separated by long white stripe from bill to nape. White underparts and collar, with black patch on breast-sides. Rest of upperparts blackish to olive-green in male, olive-brown in female. Similar spp. Blue-and-white Kingfisher T. diops is smaller, bluer above, lacks white supercilium and has white spot on lores. Sacred Kingfisher T. sancta is less dark above, lacks white supercilium and has smaller bill. Voice Slow ki-ki-ki, or three loud, descending wails and slurred, nasal disyllables.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Poulsen, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
This forest kingfisher is considered Vulnerable because its small population is undergoing a decline as a result of increasing habitat loss and degradation.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Near Threatened (NT)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Todiramphus funebris is endemic to the island of Halmahera, North Maluku, Indonesia, where it is generally uncommon and local, with extremely few site-specific records (BirdLife International 2001). During recent censuses on the north-east peninsula of the island, the encounter rate was too low to allow an extrapolation of population size.

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 18200
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 620
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  Since the early 1990s when Halmahera remained largely forested, forest clearance has accelerated dramatically and it is suspected to have precipitated a population decline. The precise rate of forest loss and the inferred rate of population decline are not known.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 1 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is resident in closed-canopy primary forest (where it perches in shady locations in the lower canopy and middle storey), often overlooking clearings, swamp-forest dominated by sago palms with few tall trees, tall secondary woodland, mangroves and forest edge, from the lowlands up to 620 m (but most frequently below 300 m). It also visits cultivated habitats (including coconut-groves and plantations).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 4.8
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened by habitat loss. Since the early 1990s (when it was reported that c.90% of the total area of Halmahera remained forested), clearance and fragmentation of forest has accelerated dramatically. Exploitation of economically valuable trees is now widespread and intensive, with most remaining forest under timber concession. In addition, habitat is under pressure from increased settlement and transmigration, conversion to agriculture, plantations, irrigation schemes, fuelwood-collection and mineral extraction. Given the predilection of this species for low elevations, these threats are particularly alarming.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
This species has been nominally protected under Indonesian law since 1931. A large national park that has been established on Halmahera, encompassing 3,550 km2 of all representative forest-types on the island, between Lalobata and Ake Tajawe, is very likely to support a population of the species (M. Poulsen in litt. 2007). Gunung Gamkonora (from whence old records derive) has been recommended for wildlife sanctuary or recreation forest status.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys for the species to clarify its current distribution, status and ecological requirements (particularly to clarify the importance of intact forest). Determine and implement appropriate conservation actions, including the establishment of key sites as strict protected areas. Initiate conservation awareness programmes to elicit support for reduced forest clearance.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Todiramphus funebris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22683387A38040739. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
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