Apalharpactes reinwardtii 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Trogoniformes Trogonidae

Scientific Name: Apalharpactes reinwardtii
Species Authority: (Temminck, 1822)
Common Name(s):
English Javan Trogon, Blue-tailed Trogon
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Harpactes reinwardtii (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split (and generic attribution revised) into Apalharpactes reinwardtii and A. mackloti following Collar and van Balen (2002).

Identification information: 34 cm. A striking green and yellow trogon. Upperparts green, except for a blue tail. Underparts largely yellow with a green breast band. The bill is red and the naked skin around the eye is blue. Voice A dry, high rattling "sterrrr".

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-07-24
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Brickle, N., Iqbal, M., Robson, C., Supriatna, A. & van Balen, B.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Allinson, T, Benstead, P., Bird, J., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
This species has been downlisted to Vulnerable on the basis that its population is estimated to be larger than previously thought; however, its population remains small and inferred to be in on-going decline as a result of habitat loss and some trapping pressure.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Endangered (EN)
2008 Endangered (EN)
2004 Endangered (EN)
2000 Not Recognized (NR)
1994 Not Recognized (NR)
1988 Not Recognized (NR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Apalharpactes reinwardtii is known from seven forested mountains in West Java, Indonesia: Gunung Halimun, Gunung Salak, Gunung Gede-Pangrango, Gunung Patuha-Tilu, Gunung Wayang, Gunung Papandayan and Ciwidey. There are only recent records from four of these (Halimun, Salak, Gede-Pangrango and Ciwidey). The historical range totals 11,600 km2. Although it has been stated to occur at 800-2,600 m, little forest remains below 1,000 m away from Halimun, and the species appears to be rarer at higher elevations. The only site where the species appears to be common now is Gunung Halimun, but only at lower elevations. The population size of this species may be as low as a few hundred pairs (Collar and van Balen 2002).

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 1100
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 900
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size has been estimated to be as low as a few hundred pairs (Collar and van Balen 2002); however, it is easily overlooked, and there is still extensive forest east of Cibodas/Halimun that remains to be surveyed, thus it may be more common and widespread than recent observations suggest (B. van Balen in litt. 2013). It seems likely that more than 250 mature individuals occupy each of the large areas of forest at Gunung Gede and Halimun (C. Robson in litt. 2013). The species's population is therefore placed in the band for 2,500-9,999 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  Although much of the population may now be restricted to protected areas on Java, it is suspected to be continuing to decline at a moderate rate, owing to the on-going encroachment of forests by agriculture and urban development, as well as limited trapping pressure (A. A. Supriatna in litt. 2012, B. van Balen in litt. 2013).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It appears to favour mid-montane forest, where it feeds on a variety of invertebrates taken by aerial sallying or by perch-gleaning. It also feeds on fruit and will occasionally join mixed-species flocks (del Hoyo et al. 2001).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 7.3
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Forest loss, degradation and fragmentation, through widespread agricultural encroachment and localised development (e.g. holiday resorts and geothermal projects), are on-going threats in the species's altitudinal range. It also appears to suffer limited trapping pressure (A. A. Supriatna in litt. 2012, B. van Balen in litt. 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species has been recorded in Gunung Halimun and Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Parks.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys for the species at all mountains potentially within its range to clarify its current distribution and population status. Propose key sites for designation as protected areas, or as extensions to existing reserves. Work with local authorities and relevant companies to minimise the impact of tourism and development projects on forested mountains within its range.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2014. Apalharpactes reinwardtii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T22682824A61582815. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
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