|Scientific Name:||Euptilotis neoxenus|
|Species Authority:||(Gould, 1838)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Taylor, J.|
This species is classed as Near Threatened because it probably has a moderately small population, which was recently thought to be stable, but could be threatened by deforestation within its range. Surveys are required, and if the population is found to be small and declining, the species may qualify for a higher threat category.
|Range Description:||Euptilotis neoxenus occurs almost throughout the mountains of west Mexico, in Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Durango, Nayarit, Zacatecas, Jalisco and Michoacán states, and even sporadically within Arizona and New Mexico, USA. Until recently, it was considered very uncommon and locally distributed, but this probably stemmed from a lack of field studies in appropriate areas (Lammertink et al. 1996). Surveys in 1995 showed it to be common in primary habitat, and frequent (including nesting) in disturbed areas and riparian corridors in otherwise largely logged areas (Lammertink et al. 1996). The population is believed to be stable (Lammertink et al. 1996).|
Native:Mexico; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Partners in Flight estimated the population to number fewer than 50,000 individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2008), thus it is placed in the band 20,000-49,999 individuals here.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits montane pine, pine-oak and pine-evergreen forests (del Hoyo et al. 2001). It is found in the upper and middle storeys of forest, particularly along watercourses in canyons, generally at 1,800-3,000 m, being most abundant at 2,100-2,800 m. It tends to nest in riparian corridors where habitat is generally intact. During winter in Mexico, it may move into lush subtropical and tropical evergreen habitat in barrancas and canyons. It feeds on insects, including moths, and fruit, though lizards are fed to nestlings (González-Rojas et al. 2008). Caterpillars and beetles are reportedly fed to its young. Pairs form in April-June, and breeding occurs in June-October, sometimes as early as April. It nests in tree cavities (del Hoyo et al. 2001, González-Rojas et al. 2008).|
Widespread forest destruction in the region may adversely affect the species through the removal of trees with suitable nesting cavities (Lammertink et al. 1996), a problem compounded by uncertainty over seasonal movements. Competition for cavities may be a limiting factor in breeding success (González-Rojas et al. 2008).
Conservation Actions Underway
La Michilía Biosphere Reserve is one of the most important sites for the species in Mexico (del Hoyo et al. 2001). Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to assess the population size. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of deforestation throughout its range. Increase the area of suitable habitat with protected status. Conduct research into the species's breeding biology. Study the species's movements and dispersal patterns.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Euptilotis neoxenus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2015.|
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