|Scientific Name:||Rhyticeros narcondami|
|Species Authority:||(Hume, 1873)|
Aceros narcondami Hume, 1873
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Rhyticeros narcondami (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Aceros.|
|Identification information:||45-50 cm. Small, distinctive, dark hornbill with pale blue gular pouch and all-white tail. Males have rufous head, neck and upper breast, blackish remainder of underparts and reddish base to bill. Females have black head to upper breast. Juveniles resemble males, but are duller-billed. Voice Cackling ka-ka-ka-ka-ka.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered D ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Derhé, M., Peet, N., Symes, A., Tobias, J. & Khwaja, N.|
This hornbill is listed as Endangered because it is suspected that its very small population, which is restricted to one tiny island, consists of fewer than 250 mature individuals. Its population appears to be stable despite some degree of hunting and habitat degradation.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the tiny (6.82 km2) island of Narcondam, east of the Andaman Islands, India. In 1998, the population was estimated at 295-320 birds and stable, including an estimated 68-85 breeding pairs, while during fieldwork in 2000, the population was estimated to be 432 individuals (Yahya and Zarri 2002), and in 2003, Vivek and Vijayan (2003) reported 320-340 individuals; these figures may indicate that the number of mature individuals is fewer than 250 (Kinnaird and O'Brien 2007).|
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||6.82|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||6.82|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Number of Locations:||1|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||No|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||700|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 320-340 individuals, based on an area of habitat of 6 km2. This is interpreted by Kinnaird and O'Brien (2007) to equate to fewer than 250 mature individuals, and so the population is placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals.
Trend Justification: Its population appears to be stable despite some degree of hunting and habitat degradation.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is resident in fairly open mixed forest, which covers most of the island, from sea-level to the peak at c. 700 m asl, although the majority of nests are below 200 m asl (Vijayan 2009). It uses mature, undisturbed forests with large trees for nesting and roosting. The species nests in holes on the trunk or broken branches of large trees and the female is sealed into a nest-cavity for the duration of egg-laying and chick-rearing (the breeding period spanning at least from February until April). At this time, the female sheds her flight feathers and is incapable of flight. Each pair generally raise two young. Breeding birds are over four years old and constitute c. 46-53% of the population (Vijayan 2009). Nine species of fruits have been recorded in the diet (Yahya and Zarri 2002) as well as invertebrates and occasionally small reptiles (Vijayan 2009).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||19|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||A small police outpost was established on the island in 1969. Two or three hectares of forest have been lost to the creation of the post and a plantation of fruit trees and vegetable plots. At least 10 living trees are cut each year for fuel wood for the camp and further wood is cut periodically for maintenance purposes. The proposed installation of communication structures on the island could further reduce the habitat of this species and cause disturbance during the construction phase (K. Sivakumar in litt. 2012) . The introduction of domestic animals also poses a potential threat. Previously up to 400 feral goats were living on the island and limiting natural forest regeneration, but most have now been removed (Yahya and Zarri 2002). A sizeable population of feral cats occurs which may pose a threat to the species. Hunting for food results in an estimated annual loss of 25-40 birds (Islam and Rahmani 2010), but this is not a serious threat given its high levels of recruitment. Its small population and tiny range make it susceptible to natural disasters and disease.|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It is protected under the Wildlife Protection Act and Narcondam Island is a wildlife sanctuary. Goats have been removed, although local reports suggest this may not have been completely successful (K. Sivakumar in litt. 2012). Strict instructions not to hunt the species have been issued to the personnel on the island. In 1992, the Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON) began preliminary surveys of the avifauna on the Andaman Islands, with an emphasis on several target species, including Narcondam Hornbill.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor the population regularly. Completely remove all remaining goats from the island (K. Sivakumar in litt. 2012). Provide cooking fuel to the island's inhabitants to eliminate their requirement for fuelwood. Carefully investigate the possibility of establishing a second population on another suitable island in the Andamans in case of a serious population decline or natural disaster. Consider providing nest boxes to increase the availability of nest sites. Plant additional fig trees to encourage forest regeneration. Reduce illegal hunting through environmental education and strict enforcement of the Wildlife Protection Act. Develop a long-term species recovery plan (K. Sivakumar in litt. 2008).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2013. Rhyticeros narcondami. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22682531A49901205. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.|
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