Jacamaralcyon tridactyla 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Piciformes Galbulidae

Scientific Name: Jacamaralcyon tridactyla (Vieillot, 1817)
Common Name(s):
English Three-toed Jacamar
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Identification information: 18 cm. Dull olivaceous, long-billed bird. Dark grey upperparts glossed green. White breast and lower belly with olivaceous-grey flanks and vent. Blackish throat, warm brown face, with bold buffy streaking on crown, whiter streaks on malar. Long tail and wings dusky. Slender, blackish bill. Voice Complex series of ascending whistles mixed with raspy notes, often delivered in groups. Also wheet call. Hints In small groups, perched motionless in subcanopy, somewhat concealed. In vicinity of exposed earth banks.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;D1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Kirwan, G. & Melo Júnior, T.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Capper, D., Clay, R.P., Sharpe, C.J., Symes, A., Williams, R.
Although capable of surviving in some degraded woodlots, this species has undergone a major decline, such that the remaining population is believed to be very small and fragmented. Habitat loss and degradation continue to threaten populations, which are likely to be declining. For these reasons it qualifies as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Jacamaralcyon tridactyla now occurs chiefly in small numbers at a few sites in the rio Paraíba valley in Rio de Janeiro state, and in the dry regions of east Minas Gerais, south-east Brazil. There are older records from Espírito Santo (known from only two localities and not since 1940), São Paulo (not since at least 1975) and Paraná (not reliably since 1961). Recent records from Minas Gerais have widened its known distribution (Machado et al. 1998, T. A. de Melo Júnior in litt. 1998, 1999, Silveira and Nobre 1998, Vasconcelos et al. 1999, Ribon et al. 2002) and suggest that further populations may exist within this area. It was considered very common in the early and mid-19th century and must have suffered a very substantial decline in numbers. It is now local even in the core of its current diminished range.

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:466000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):240
Upper elevation limit (metres):1100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The total population is placed in the band 250-999 mature individuals, equating to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend Justification:  A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of habitat destruction and fragmentation.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:250-999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is now primarily restricted to small patches of dry forest, possibly associated with streams, but can persist in degraded areas where the original vegetation has been replaced (e.g. by Eucalyptus plantations [Machado and Lamas 1996, Silveira and Nobre 1998]) if a native understorey remains. It is dependent on earth banks (streamsides and roadcuttings) for nesting-cavities (Silveira and Nobre 1998). Individuals are conspicuous, perching in exposed positions in the subcanopy (8-15 m), though also lower (T. A. de Melo Júnior in litt. 1998, 1999, G. M. Kirwan in litt. 1999), from where they sally to take aerial insect prey (Silveira and Nobre 1998). Preferred food items are small cryptic Lepidoptera (G. M. Kirwan in litt. 1999) and Hymenoptera (Machado and Lamas 1996), but birds also take Diptera, Odonata, Homoptera, Hemiptera and Isoptera (Machado and Lamas 1996). Vocalisations and courtship behaviour increase at the start of the rainy season, but decrease during incubation (Vasconcelos et al. 1999).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):6.2
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Widespread and continuing habitat destruction have been responsible for the significant decline in numbers and range of this species. In addition, its specialised habitat requirements ensure that it is absent from many degraded woodlots. Its resulting highly fragmented distribution is very vulnerable to further habitat loss and the effects of small population sizes, such as local extinctions and inbreeding.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected under Brazilian law. It is known from Caratinga Biological Station, Rio Doce State Park, Serra do Brigadeiro State Park, Fernão Dias State Park and UFMG Ecological Station, Minas Gerais.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey suitable habitat to clarify distribution, status and ecological requirements. Prevent disturbance of the understorey and earth banks at known localities (Silveira and Nobre 1998). Protect key sites, especially in south-east Minas Gerais and the rio Paraíba valley.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Jacamaralcyon tridactyla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22682186A92933978. . Downloaded on 24 April 2018.
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