Dryobates minor 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Piciformes Picidae

Scientific Name: Dryobates minor (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Lesser Spotted Woodpecker
Dendrocopos minor (Linnaeus, 1758)
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Taxonomic Notes: Dryobates minor (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Dendrocopos.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A., Ashpole, J
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The overall population trend is uncertain however it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Monaco; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); San Marino; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:39300000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The European population is estimated at 491,000-1,050,000 pairs, which equates to 983,000-2,110,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.45% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 2,180,000-4,700,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend Justification:  The overall population trend is unknown. In Europe, the population trend between 1980 and 2013 is uncertain (EBCC 2015). The short-term population trend (2000-2012) in Europe is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015). Loss of deciduous habitats, especially riverine forest and old orchards is thought to have contributed to declines in Europe (Winkler and Christie 2002).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:2100000-4799999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species is present in temperate and boreal deciduous woodland in lowlands. It prefers open forest with softwood deciduous trees in vicinity of lakes or rivers, as well as forest edge, parks, orchards and gardens. It requires a good number of thin snags, as in old stands or in riparian woodland. It is restricted to cork-oak forest, especially with Quercus suber, in North Africa. Courtship begins in February and laying takes place from April to May (June in the north). Clutches are usually five or six eggs. It is monogamous and the pair-bond may continue for several years. The nest is excavated by both sexes, in soft wood of a dead or decaying trunk, a stump or the underside of a branch. Its diet comprises mainly of small insects; in the summer mostly caterpillars, aphids, ants, beetles, and other surface-dwelling arthropods and in the winter, wood-boring larvae and those living under the bark become important (Winkler and Christie 2002). The species is essentially sedentary but dispersal movements in August and November may give rise to eruptive movements in the north (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):5.2
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species has declined due to a loss of deciduous habitats, especially riverine forest and old orchards and due to the admixture of conifers (Winkler and Christie 2002). It is sensitive to forest fragmentation due to its large home range (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. Monitoring of the species is generally poor in Europe with some exception; declines of the species have been well observed in Finland, Sweden and England (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Most important measure is to ensure that adequate suitable habitat is conserved (Winkler and Christie 2002).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Dryobates minor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22681076A87316088. . Downloaded on 21 July 2018.
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