|Scientific Name:||Jynx torquilla|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||There is evidence to suggest that the European population (200,000-510,000 pairs, occupying 50-74% of the global breeding range) has declined by up to 30% over ten years (three generations), but this may reflect shifts in breeding populations, populations in Asia are not thought to be declining and wintering populations in Africa appear to be increasing.|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Chad; China; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea-Bissau; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Sudan; Spain; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia
Vagrant:Bhutan; Central African Republic; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Faroe Islands; Guinea; Iceland; Ireland; Mali; Niger; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Togo; United States (Georgia - Native)
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||12700000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||3300|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 580,000-1,300,000 breeding pairs, equating to 1,740,000-3,900,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 3,550,000-15,600,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and possibly c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend Justification: The population has suffered a long term reduction in numbers and range since the mid 19th century in west and central Europe owing to increased rain during the breeding season caused by climatic changes, agricultural improvement, loss of orchards and unimproved meadows, replacement of hardwoods with conifer plantations and widespread over-use of pesticides and herbicides (del Hoyo et al. 2002). In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Jynx torquilla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22680683A67263172. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.|
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