Histrionicus histrionicus


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Histrionicus histrionicus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Harlequin Duck, Harlequin

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Harlequin Duck is found in north-western and north-estern North America, eastern Russia, the Aleutian Islands, southern Greenland and Iceland. It can winter further south, being found off Korea, northern California and North Carolina (USA) (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Canada; China; Greenland; Iceland; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Mexico; Russian Federation; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; United States
Austria; Belgium; Croatia; Denmark; France; Germany; Italy; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.190,000-380,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at <c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Russia (Brazil 2009).
For further information about this species, see 22680423_histrionicus_histrionicus.pdf.
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Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found breeding on swifts torrents and rapid streams of rugged uplands, normally wintering on rocky coastlines. It feeds mainly on insects and their larvae in summer, catching molluscs and crustaceans in winter. Feeding mostly occurs mostly by diving, but also dabbling and head-dipping in shallow water. Breeding begins in May or June, nesting on the ground concealed in vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Histrionicus histrionicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 01 September 2015.
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