|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Butchart, S., Calvert, R. & Ekstrom, J.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2009 – Least Concern (LC) –
- 2008 – Least Concern (LC) –
- 2004 – Least Concern (LC) –
- 2000 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc) –
- 1994 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc) –
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc) –
|Range Description:||The Harlequin Duck is found in north-western and north-estern North America, eastern Russia, the Aleutian Islands, southern Greenland and Iceland. It can winter further south, being found off Korea, northern California and North Carolina (USA) (del Hoyo et al. 1992). |
Canada; China; Greenland; Iceland; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Mexico; Russian Federation; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; United States
Austria; Belgium; Croatia; Denmark; France; Germany; Italy; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||3170000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number c.190,000-380,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at <c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Russia (Brazil 2009).|
Trend Justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|