Anas capensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae

Scientific Name: Anas capensis Gmelin, 1789
Common Name(s):
English Cape Teal
French Sarcelle du Cap
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Dodman, T.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Malpas, L., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Angola; Botswana; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Ethiopia; Kenya; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; South Africa; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Cameroon; Ghana; Israel; Lesotho; Libya; Malawi; Swaziland
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:14000000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend:Increasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Behaviour This species is known to undertake considerable nomadic movements in response to changing water levels (many of its favoured sites are ephemeral) (Scott and Rose 1996), and it is an irregular and opportunistic breeder, varying its time of breeding with rainfall (Brown et al. 1982). Throughout both breeding and non-breeding seasons the species is dispersed in single pairs or small flocks of 3-7 birds; large flocks in the moulting season are recorded rarely, when some gatherings can be as large as 2,000 strong (Madge and Burn 1988, Kear 2005b). The species is diurnal, with most of its activity occurring between 0700-0900 (Hockey et al. 2005) and 1300-1700 (Brown et al. 1982), although occasionally the species may also forage at night (Hockey et al. 2005). Habitat This species frequents shallow saline lakes, seasonal and permanent brackish or saline pools and vleis, rivers, seasonally flooded wetlands, farm dams, state reservoirs, coastal shorelines, estuaries, lagoons, tidal mudflats and wastewater treatment pools (Johnsgard 1978, Madge and Burn 1988, Dowsett 2004, Hockey et al. 2005, Kear 2005b). In the East African Rift Valley it occurs from the lowlands up to 1,700 m (Scott and Rose 1996) on small, sheltered alkaline and brackish waters with little or no shoreline vegetation, moving to permanent alkaline waters when nearby temporal pools become dry (Baker 2003). In the Western Cape of South Africa this species moves to deep, open waters on which to moult, and prefers to breed on bare and grassy pans (Hockey et al. 2005). Diet It has an omnivorous diet, feeding on the stems, leaves and seeds of pondweeds, as well as aquatic insects, crustaceans and tadpoles (Johnsgard 1978). Breeding site Females prefer to locate nests on islands where possible, although nest sites can be some distance from the water. The nest itself is a hollow scrape in the ground, well concealed amongst small trees, thorny bushes or aquatic vegetation (Johnsgard 1978, del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kear 2005b).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):6.6
Movement patterns:Nomadic
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is susceptible to avian botulism (Blaker 1967, van Heerden 1974), especially when feeding on sewage and effluent ponds (Hockey et al. 2005), so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the disease. It is also potentially threatened by habitat loss through wetland destruction and degradation, for example Walvis Bay in Namibia (a key wetland site in southern Africa) is being degraded through changes in the flood regime due to road building, wetland reclamation for suburb and port development, and disturbance from tourism (Wearne and Underhill 2005). Utilisation The species is highly valued and commonly shot (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Little et al. 1995), although there is no evidence that the hunting of this species currently poses a threat.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Anas capensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22680145A92846056. . Downloaded on 15 August 2018.
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