Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae

Scientific Name: Speculanas specularis
Species Authority: King, 1828
Common Name(s):
English Spectacled Duck, Bronze-winged Duck
Anas specularis Stotz et al. (1996)
Anas specularis Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Anas specularis BirdLife International (2000)
Anas specularis Collar et al. (1994)
Anas specularis BirdLife International (2004)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 46-54 cm. A dull duck with a bold head pattern. Dark brown hood with oval patch between lores and malar, white. Large white gular crescent. Dark chocolate brown above with buff scalloping on back, paler grey-buff below, mottled dusky. Vinaceous bronze wing speculum. Similar spp. Only possibly confused with Chiloe Wigeon A. sibilatrix which has an obvious green sheen on head and rusty flanks. Its upperparts are broadly fringed white and has an obvious white wing patch. Voice Male utters a trilled whistle or harsh hiss sie sie and female bark-like gue gue notes. Hints Occurs in pairs or small groups; generally retiring. Mostly in open rivers.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Pearman, M., Imberti, I. & Jaramillo, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Capper, D., Mazar Barnett, J., Pilgrim, J., Benstead, P., Symes, A.
This species is classified as Near Threatened as it has a small global population within which all its subpopulations are small. If it was demonstrated to be declining it would qualify as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2006 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Speculanas specularis is most common in the Andean valleys of south Chile and west-central Argentina to Tierra del Fuego. It has been suggested that some birds disperse north and east after the breeding season (Carboneras 1992a). The population is estimated at fewer than 10,000 individuals (R. Schlatter in litt. 2002 to Wetlands International 2002), but there are few obvious threats and numbers seem stable.

Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Chile
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 386000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1800
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number fewer than 10,000 individuals, and so is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals (R. Schlatter in litt. 2002). This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 1500-7000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It breeds mostly by fast-flowing rivers in forested regions up to 1,800 m, but also on wetlands, ponds and lakes away from dense forests (Carboneras 1992a, Parker et al. 1996, S. Imberti in litt. 1999, Delany and Scott 2002). Breeding begins in September-October, with egg-laying in October-November, and a c.30 day incubation period in captivity (Carboneras 1992a). It feeds on seeds, leaves and stems of aquatic plants, variable amounts of aquatic invertebrates, and sometimes in the leaf-litter of forests away from water (Carboneras 1992a, S. Imberti in litt. 1999).

Systems: Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 7
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Potential threats include predation by Mustela vison (M. Pearman in litt. 1999), increased pressure from tourism (e.g. in Los Glaciares National Park [S. Imberti in litt. 1999]), and salmon farming and trout stocking on Chilean rivers (A. Jaramillo in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is well represented within protected areas, occurring in seven Argentinean National Parks (Delany and Scott 2002) and Torres del Paine National Park, Chile (A. Jaramillo in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Census and monitor the population. Research potential threats from tourism, predation and fish farming. Ensure the effective protection of the protected areas in which it occurs.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Speculanas specularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22680136A37854303. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
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