Speculanas specularis


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Speculanas specularis
Species Authority: King, 1828
Common Name(s):
English Spectacled Duck, Bronze-winged Duck
Anas specularis Stotz et al. (1996)
Anas specularis Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Anas specularis BirdLife International (2000)
Anas specularis Collar et al. (1994)
Anas specularis BirdLife International (2004)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Jaramillo, A., Pearman, M. & Imberti, I.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Capper, D., Mazar Barnett, J., Pilgrim, J., Benstead, P., Symes, A.
This species is classified as Near Threatened as it has a small global population within which all its subpopulations are small. If it was demonstrated to be declining it would qualify as Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Speculanas specularis is most common in the Andean valleys of south Chile and west-central Argentina to Tierra del Fuego. It has been suggested that some birds disperse north and east after the breeding season (Carboneras 1992a). The population is estimated at fewer than 10,000 individuals (R. Schlatter in litt. 2002 to Wetlands International 2002), but there are few obvious threats and numbers seem stable.

Argentina; Chile
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number fewer than 10,000 individuals, and so is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals (R. Schlatter in litt. 2002). This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It breeds mostly by fast-flowing rivers in forested regions up to 1,800 m, but also on wetlands, ponds and lakes away from dense forests (Carboneras 1992a, Parker et al. 1996, S. Imberti in litt. 1999, Delany and Scott 2002). Breeding begins in September-October, with egg-laying in October-November, and a c.30 day incubation period in captivity (Carboneras 1992a). It feeds on seeds, leaves and stems of aquatic plants, variable amounts of aquatic invertebrates, and sometimes in the leaf-litter of forests away from water (Carboneras 1992a, S. Imberti in litt. 1999).

Systems: Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Potential threats include predation by Mustela vison (M. Pearman in litt. 1999), increased pressure from tourism (e.g. in Los Glaciares National Park [S. Imberti in litt. 1999]), and salmon farming and trout stocking on Chilean rivers (A. Jaramillo in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is well represented within protected areas, occurring in seven Argentinean National Parks (Delany and Scott 2002) and Torres del Paine National Park, Chile (A. Jaramillo in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Census and monitor the population. Research potential threats from tourism, predation and fish farming. Ensure the effective protection of the protected areas in which it occurs.

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Speculanas specularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 29 August 2015.
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