|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Pilgrim, J.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2009 – Least Concern (LC) –
- 2008 – Least Concern (LC) –
- 2006 – Least Concern (LC) –
- 2004 – Not Recognized (NR) –
- 2000 – Not Recognized (NR) –
- 1994 – Not Recognized (NR) –
- 1988 – Not Recognized (NR) –
|Range Description:||This species has a large range, breeding across tundra in much of Canada, Alaska, U.S.A., and parts of the northern U.S.A., and wintering in southern North America, including Mexico. Introduced populations are now resident in much of the U.S.A. south of the normal breeding range, as well as in a number of western European countries. The subspecies asiatica, which occurred in the Bering Sea region, has been extinct since around 1914 (Fuller 2000).|
Bahamas; Canada; Cayman Islands; Cuba; Greenland; Haiti; Mexico; Puerto Rico; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States
Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Denmark; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Germany; Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Poland; Russian Federation; Sweden; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Australia; Belarus; Bermuda; Bulgaria; Iceland; Jamaica; Japan; Kiribati; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Marshall Islands; Portugal; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||7870000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||2000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|