Cyrtonyx ocellatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Galliformes Odontophoridae

Scientific Name: Cyrtonyx ocellatus (Gould, 1837)
Common Name(s):
English Ocellated Quail
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Bonta, M., Escalante, P., Howell, S., Clinton Eitniear, J., Eisermann, K. & Gallardo, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Calvert, R., Capper, D., Keane, A., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J & Symes, A.
This species his listed as Vulnerable as it is projected to undergo a rapid population decline over the next three generations as a result of increased demand for agricultural land due to human population increases, because of mining concessions in its stronghold of Guatemala, and due to increased hunting pressure.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Cyrtonyx ocellatus occurs from south Mexico through Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras to north Nicaragua (Carroll 1994). Guatemala has been identified as a stronghold for this species, and it has been sighted at 11 different sites since 2000. It is considered to be rare at all of these sites and there have been few additional recent records from Mexico, Honduras and Nicaragua. Considering this, and given that there have been no recent records from El Salvador, the total global population is now thought to number fewer than 10,000 individuals (Eitniear and Eisermann 2009, K. Eisermann in litt. 2010). It is thought to have once been widespread and fairly common across its range (R. Gallardo in litt. 2012), implying it has undergone a significant decline.

Countries occurrence:
El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:233000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):750
Upper elevation limit (metres):3050
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Although a full population census is yet to be completed, the species is thought to be rare at all known sites in Guatemala, there are few recent records from Mexico, Honduras and Nicaragua, and no recent records from El Salvador. Considering this, the population is thought to hold fewer than 10,000 individuals (K. Eisermann in litt. 2010), hence is best placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, which roughly equates to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  This species is thought to have undergone a moderately rapid decline in the past decade. However, this rate of decline is projected to increase to 30-49% over the next 10 years (three generations), primarily due to habitat loss and hunting in its stronghold of Guatemala as a result of human population increases and opencast mining (Eitniear and Eisermann 2009, K. Eisermann in litt. 2010).

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1500-7000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits the grassy understorey of open pine-oak woodland and brushy fields at elevations of 750-3,050 m (del Hoyo et al. 1994), feeding on fruits, seeds, small invertebrates and wood sorrell (R. Gallardo in litt. 2012).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):3.9
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is declining as a result of deforestation and habitat degradation (McGowan et al. 1995, P. Escalante in litt. 2007), the rate of which is set to continue or even increase over the next decade because of a rapidly growing human population and opencast mining concessions, which cover c.25% of current highland forest in Guatemala (Eitniear and Eisermann 2009, K. Eisermann in litt. 2010). Intensive grazing and extensive burning for grazing is also a serious and pervasive threat because of its severe impact on the species's subterranean food supplies (Johnsgard 1988b, M. Bonta in litt. 1999). Hunting pressures almost certainly occur throughout much of its range (Carroll 1994), but birds are not often kept as pets in south Mexico (S. N. G. Howell in litt. 1998) contra Carroll (1994), and the overall impact of exploitation is unknown (P. Escalante in litt. 2005), although it is suspected that it will increase in the future (K. Eisermann in litt. 2010). The dense human population in the Guatemalan highlands, consisting mainly of small-scale farmers, causes extensive disturbance in the forest understorey (including in protected areas) by extensive collection of firewood, collection of leaf litter as organic fertilizer, and straying dogs; hence low reproductive success can be suspected (K. Eisermann in litt. 2012). There appears to be little suitable habitat for the species within protected areas in its range (P. Escalante in litt. 2005).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess population size. Investigate the extent of hunting and take appropriate measures, including the use of awareness campaigns, to address these issues. Regularly monitor at certain sites throughout its range to determine population trends. Study the species's biology in the field. Protect significant areas of suitable habitat in a network of private and public reserves. Investigate the possibility of conservation on land with a lower stock density. Engage local communities at known sites in Honduras, using presentations and workshops (R. Gallardo in litt. 2012).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Cyrtonyx ocellatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22679717A92825670. . Downloaded on 26 September 2018.
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