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Lophura bulweri 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Galliformes Phasianidae

Scientific Name: Lophura bulweri (Sharpe, 1874)
Common Name(s):
English Bulwer's Pheasant, Bulwer's Pheasant, White-tailed Wattled Pheasant
Synonym(s):
Lobiophasis bulweri Sharpe, 1874 — BirdLife International (2004)
Lobiophasis bulweri ssp. bulweri Sharpe, 1874 — BirdLife International (2001)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: Male 77-80 cm, female c.55 cm. Blackish-plumaged pheasant with bushy, gleaming white tail (male). Blue facial skin and wattles, red legs and indistinct bluish spotting to tips of upperpart feathers. Female smaller and darkish rufous-brown in colour with dull bluish facial skin and red legs. Similar spp. Female Crested Fireback L. ignita has tufted crest, prominently white-scaled underparts and pale legs. Voice Territorial call shrill, piercing cry, also utters kak alarm notes and penetrating, rather metallic kook!, kook!

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Davison, G., Rowden, J. & van Balen, B.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Keane, A., Taylor, J.
Justification:
This pheasant is classified as Vulnerable because it is suspected to be declining rapidly owing to extensive and on-going habitat loss, compounded by hunting. It is also assumed to have a small population, which is likely to be experiencing increasingly severe fragmentation, particularly as it may be dependent on nomadic visits to lowland areas.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Lophura bulweri is endemic to Borneo, where it is known from Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia, Kalimantan, Indonesia and Brunei. Although apparently rather patchily distributed, it was once described as very common in undisturbed parts of interior Borneo. In 1995, it was estimated to number fewer than 10,000 individuals. Despite there being no reason to believe that the species was threatened a decade ago, the paucity of recent records, combined with anecdotal information regarding its habits and alarming current rates of habitat loss, indicate that it may be declining rapidly.

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:610000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):150
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number 1,000-10,000 individuals by McGowan and Garson (1995). It is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals here, equating to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  The species is suspected to be undergoing a rapid population decline owing to the loss and fragmentation of its forest habitat, although it is mainly restricted to relatively less threatened hill forest, with the possibility that the rate of decline is slower than this (B. van Balen in litt. 2012), necessitating further research.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:2500-9999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits primary hill and lower montane forest, from c.300 m up to at least 1,500 m, and at least occasionally down to c.150 m. Limited field evidence suggests that the species is nomadic. It may rely on lowland forest masting events, resulting in feeding concentrations, after which it breeds, later moving back up into the hills. It may not appear again in the same area for years.

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):5
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Forest loss, degradation and fragmentation, through large-scale commercial logging, widespread clearance for plantations of rubber and oil-palm, and extensive recent fires pose the primary threats, compounded more locally by hunting for food. If, as suggested, it is dependent on lowland masting events, highways and clearings through mountains and across the lowlands may have cut off potential access routes to important feeding areas, which in turn may be undermining its breeding capacity.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is afforded protection under Indonesian law and is a protected species in Sarawak, Malaysia. It has recently been recorded in at least six protected areas including Kayan Mentarang National Park (Rowden 2001a), Bukit Raya National Park (Kalimantan), Gunung Mulu and Lanjak-Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary (Sarawak) and the Danum Valley Conservation Area (Sabah).  Captive breeding birds, usually kept in monogamous pairs, do exist, with 20 individuals registered in 2001.  These, however, enjoy only sporadic breeding success, perhaps in part due to the social structure in which they are kept (Rowden 2001b)

Conservation Actions Proposed
Identify and record its vocalisations to aid field surveys. Conduct extensive field surveys to assess its distribution, status and ecological requirements (focussing particularly on whether it is nomadic and reliant on masting events). Promote prohibition of hunting by those living or working within logging concessions. Promote the concept of Forest Management Units in Sabah (99-year concessions of great size). Assist forest managers in habitat identification and zoning of concession areas. Support the proposed extension of Bukit Raya National Park, and establishment of further protected areas found to hold populations.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Lophura bulweri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22679278A92808853. . Downloaded on 24 October 2017.
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