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Alectoris chukar 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Galliformes Phasianidae

Scientific Name: Alectoris chukar
Species Authority: (Gray, 1830)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Chukar, Chukar Partridge, Chuckar
French Perdrix chukar
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, hence it is not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Afghanistan; Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Bulgaria; China; Cyprus; Egypt; Georgia; Greece; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Mongolia; Nepal; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan
Introduced:
Bahrain; Canada; France; Germany; Italy; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; New Zealand; Norway; Portugal; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; South Africa; Spain; United States (Georgia - Native, Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:19300000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):4500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Rich et al. (2004) have estimated the global population to number c.2,000,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 488,000-1,680,000 pairs, which equates to 975,000-3,370,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.10% of the global range, so a revised estimate of the global population size is c. 9,000,000-34,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in China has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  In Europe the small population is estimated to be decreasing at a rate approaching 30% in 11.7 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). In Lebanon the population is considered locally reduced. Elsewhere the population is suspected to be stable or locally increasing (McGowan and Kirwan 2016).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:5000000-34999999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species is found on barren arid and semi-arid hillsides with low vegetation cover and occasional stunted trees and bushes (Watson 1962, Papaevangelou 1980). At lower altitudes it is found on rocky slopes with shrubs and bushes adapted to dry conditions, in vineyards, olive groves and on agricultural land (Pantelis 1980, Papaevangelou 1980, Serez 1992).

Laying occurs mid-April to May in the Mediterranean with 7–12 eggs laid. The nest consists of a scrape sometimes lined with grass or leaves and is found under the shelter of bushes or overhanging grasses. It feeds on plants and insects, taking bulbous roots, grains and shoots of grasses and cereals as well as leaves, buds, flowers and berries (Watson 1962, Cramp and Simmons 1980). Availability of water influences population density even though birds will move up to 10 km to access water (Watson 1962). The species undergoes seasonal altitudinal movements moving to lower altitudes during the winter (McGowan and Kirwan 2016).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):3.9
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Severe winters are known to affect the Turkish populations and pesticides may now be a cause for concern. It is also suffering from habitat degradation in some areas (McGowan and Kirwan 2016). Habitat loss, intensive hunting and poaching are thought to threaten the species in Azerbaijan. Birds released for hunting pose a threat to this species through genetic contamination from non-native populations and from A. rufa (Panayides et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
EU Birds Directive Annex II. Protected in Turkey since 1990 (McGowan and Kirwan 2016).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Assessment of the impacts of pesticides is needed to inform appropriate conservation measures. Identify key areas of habitat for this species and take steps to protect and expand them.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Alectoris chukar. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22678691A89355978. . Downloaded on 09 December 2016.
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