|Scientific Name:||Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.|
|Identification information:||42-49 cm. Large, grey tinamou. Mostly grey, with sides of head freckled and undertail-coverts reddish brown. Voice An abrupt, single hoot.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A3c ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N. & Symes, A.|
Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, its sensitivity to habitat fragmentation and disturbance and its vulnerability to hunting, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Tinamus tao occurs on the eastern slopes of the Andes and in Brazil's "cerrado" (dry savanna woodland). Subspecies larensis occurs in central Colombia and north-west Venezuela. Subspecies kleei is distributed from south-central Colombia and east Ecuador through Peru to east Bolivia and west Brazil. Subspecies septentrionalis occurs in north-west Venezuela, and possibly in Guyana although it has not been recorded there in recent times (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Restall et al. 2006). The nominate subspecies is endemic to north-central Brazil (del Hoyo et al. 1992).|
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; Guyana; Peru; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).|
Trend Justification: This species is suspected to lose 29.5-36.8% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (20 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to hunting and/or trapping, it is therefore suspected to decline by ≥30% over three generations.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is found in a range of forest types, including rainforest in the Andes, dense secondary forest throughout, cerrado in Brazil and cloud forest in Venezuela (del Hoyo et al. 1992). It is known from 50-1,900 m (Hilty 2003). The species breeds from January to March in Colombia and in June in Venezuela, usually nesting in small depressions at the foot of large trees. It feeds on the forest floor, mainly on fruit, with some seeds, invertebrates and occasionally small vertebrates (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Restall et al. 2006).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||6.8|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Projected deforestation is the primary threat affecting this species, as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It requires pristine forest (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and so is especially sensitive to fragmentation and disturbance, particularly as its distribution is already patchy. Hunting by locals is also known to reduce numbers (A. Lees in litt. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Conservation Actions Proposed
Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Tinamus tao. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22678135A92757000.Downloaded on 18 September 2018.|
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