|Scientific Name:||Rhea americana|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Symes, A., Benstead, P., Capper, D., Symes, A., Sharpe, C J|
This species qualifies as Near Threatened as its population is believed to have declined at a rate approaching the threshold for classification as Vulnerable.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
Rhea americana has a large range in north-east and south-east Brazil, east Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and north-east and east Argentina south to 40°S (Folch 1992). It has declined markedly and the healthiest populations are now believed to be in parts of the Chaco region (Folch 1992).
Native:Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Paraguay; Uruguay
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||6540000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1200|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon to fairly common' (Stotz et al. 1996).
Trend Justification: A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected, owing to hunting for the species's skin and meat as well as the destruction and fragmentation of its habitat.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It typically occurs in pampas, campo cerrado and open chaco woodland, normally in areas with some tall grassland and other vegetation, but also in open grassland and cultivated fields, at elevations up to 1,200 m (Canevari et al. 1991, Folch 1992, Sick 1993, Parker et al. 1996). Population densities in grassland are several times that in agricultural areas, and birds were found to occupy 51% of a grassland area, but less than 5% of an agricultural locality (Giordano et al. 2008). For breeding, it prefers areas adjacent to rivers, lakes and marshes (Folch 1992).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||10.5|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Its status is obfuscated by the presence of feral birds (Lowen et al. 1996), but it has declined markedly partly owing to hunting for meat and the colossal export of skins. Over 50,000 skins were traded in 1980, most apparently originating in Paraguay, with Japan and USA leading consumers (Folch 1992). In recent years, the large-scale conversion of central South American grasslands for agriculture and cattle-ranching (da Silva 1995) has considerably reduced and fragmented its available habitat, particularly in the pampas and cerrado strongholds.|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor levels of illegal domestic and international trade. Effectively enforce restrictions on hunting and trade (Bellis et al. 2004). Include pastures and grasslands in agricultural ecosystems (Bellis et al. 2004). Preserve remaining natural habitat (Bellis et al. 2008, Giordano et al. 2010).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Rhea americana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22678073A37835094. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.|
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