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Trachypithecus auratus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Trachypithecus auratus
Species Authority: (É, Geoffroy, 1812)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Javan Lutung, Javan Langur, Ebony Leaf Monkey
Synonym(s):
Trachypithecus kohlbruggei (Sody, 1931)
Trachypithecus maurus (Horsfield, 1823)
Trachypithecus pyrrhus (Horsfield, 1823)
Trachypithecus sondaicus (Robinson & Kloss, 1919)
Trachypithecus stresemanni Pocock, 1934
Taxonomic Notes: There is disagreement over the validity and physical separation of the subspecies. Designations of subspecies are not well defined, and a genetic study refutes the assignment of any (Rosenblum et al. 1997).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Nijman, V. & Supriatna, J.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
This species is considered Vulnerable due to a past and continued population decline, estimated at more than 30% over the past 36 years (3 generations, given a generation length of 12 years), as a result of capture for the illegal pet trade, hunting, and loss of habitat.
History:
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to Indonesia, where it occurs on Java and the smaller islands of Bali, Lombok, Palau Sempu and Nusa Barung. The Lombok population may have been introduced there by humans (Groves 2001). The boundary between the two subspecies runs from the south coast of Java at about 109°E, northwestward to the vicinity of Jakarta (Groves 2001).

Trachypithecus auratus auratus
Occurs in eastern Java, Bali, Lombok, Palau Sempu and Nusa Barung. This subspecies has two morphs, one of which, the red morph, has a restricted distribution between Blitar, Ijen, and Pugeran, Java (Groves 2001). The other morph is more common and found in eastern Java, west to Gunung Ujungtebu (Brandon-Jones 1995).

Trachypithecus auratus mauritius
This subspecies has a restricted distribution in west Java to the north coast from Jakarta, inland to Bogor, Cisalak, and Jasinga, southwest to Ujung Kulon, then along the south coast to Cikaso or Ciwangi (Groves 2001).
Countries:
Native:
Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species was the most frequently observed primate during a survey of the Dieng Mountains in central Java (Nijman and van Balen 1998). Nijman and van Balen (1998) reported it to be rather common on both Mount Prahu and the central part of the study area in the Pegunungan Dieng Mountains where they also estimate a density of 23 individuals/km2. From a review of 14 studies, densities were estimated as following: 7.9 (+/- 8.8) groups/km2, and individuals estimated at 114 (+/- 147.9) groups/km2 (E. Meijaard and V. Nijman pers. comm.).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: T. auratus occurs in mangrove, beach, and freshwater swamp forests, ever-wet lowland and hill forests, dry deciduous forests, and montane forest up to 3,000-3,500 m (Nijman 2000), in addition to teak, rasamala, and acacia forest plantations.

It is mostly folivorous, preferring to eat leaves and flowers, though it will consume the seeds of fruits and unripened fruits as well (Nijman 2000). In the Dieng Mountains of central Java, it has been recorded from both primary and secondary forest, both on the edges and in the interior (Nijman and van Balen 1998). Home range was calculated by Kool (1993) to be 20-30 ha and may be bigger in Java.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Threats include habitat loss and degradation due to expanding agriculture and human settlements, hunting for food and increasingly for the pet trade, fragmentation, and small isolated populations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES Appendix II, and has been protected by Indonesian law since 1999. It has been recorded from Pangandaran Nature Reserve (Watanabe et al. 1996), Gunung Halimun and Ujung Kulon National Park (Gurmaya et al. 1994), and is one of the more common and thriving colobines in captivity.

Citation: Nijman, V. & Supriatna, J. 2008. Trachypithecus auratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 October 2014.
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