Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Odonata Megapodagrionidae

Scientific Name: Thaumatoneura inopinata
Species Authority: McLachlan, 1897
Common Name(s):
English Giant Waterfall Damsel
Thaumatoneura pellucida Calvert, 1904

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2007-03-01
Assessor(s): Paulson, D. R.
Reviewer(s): Clausnitzer, V. & Kalkman, V. (Odonata Red List Authority)
T. inopinata was previously listed as threatened, but it is known from a number of localities in the Costa Rican cordillera and almost surely is still present in nearby Panama, where there is a large area of appropriate habitat. Its extent of occurrence is of at least 25,000 km², although limited to quite specific habitat within that area. The species has recently been collected (1999) and filmed (early 2000s) and apparently is widespread.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2006 Least Concern (LC)
1996 Endangered (EN)
1994 Indeterminate (I)
1990 Indeterminate (I)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Thaumatoneura inopinata occurs in the following locations:
Costa Rica: Cartago Province, Carrillo (Calvert 1901-08)
Costa Rica: Cartago Province, Juan Viñas, 760 - 1,000 m (Calvert 1914)
Costa Rica: Cartago Province, Rio Reventazón, 760 m (Calvert & Calvert 1917)
Costa Rica: San José Province, Rio Claro on La Palma-Carrillo Road, 1200 m (D. Paulson collection)
Costa Rica: Alajuela Province, 10 mi N Varablanca, 850 m (D. Paulson collection)
Costa Rica: Alajuela Province, Virgen del Socorro, near Cariblanco, 800 m (D. Paulson collection)
Costa Rica: Limón Province, Infernillo, Reventazón, 1,000 m (Ris 1918)
Panama: Chiriquí Province (old literature)
Panama: Panama, Cerro Campana (Donnelly 1992)
Countries occurrence:
Costa Rica; Panama
Lower elevation limit (metres): 760
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1200
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: T. inopinata is present in small numbers where it occurs but detailed population numbers and trend are not known.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Adults and larvae of T. inopinata are closely tied to spray zone of waterfalls, from small to rather large ones. Larvae crawl on rock surfaces with a thin layer of organic mud, kept wet by spray protected from falling water (Calvert 1914). Known elevation range 760 - 1,200 m, at the lower end of montane elevations.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Deforestation, typically in forested habitats, is a threat that continues to affect T. inopinata as the removal of trees leads to alteration of stream habitats. In the future, global warming is likely to lead to the drying up of smaller streams to the point of eliminating waterfalls.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: T. inopinata is present in Braulio Carrillo National Park, Altos de Campana National Park, and probably others along cordilleras of Costa Rica and Panama. Studies are needed to establish population trends and to evaluate possible threats.

Citation: Paulson, D. R. 2009. Thaumatoneura inopinata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T21721A9313826. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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