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Taphozous melanopogon

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CHIROPTERA EMBALLONURIDAE

Scientific Name: Taphozous melanopogon
Species Authority: Temminck, 1841
Common Name(s):
English Black-bearded Tomb Bat
Synonym(s):
Taphozous bicolor Temminck, 1841
Taphozous phillipenensis Waterhouse, 1845
Taphozous solifer Hollister, 1913
Taxonomic Notes: Belongs to the subgenus Taphozous E. Geoffroy, 1818. Philippine populations were formerly separated as Taphozous philippinensis, but are now considered a subspecies of this widespread species (Corbet and Hill 1992, Koopman 1993, Rickart et al. 1993, Heaney et al. 1998). There is a need for studies of geographic variation across the species' range (L. Heaney and K. Helgen pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Csorba, G., Bumrungsri, S., Helgen, K., Francis, C., Bates, P., Gumal, M., Balete, D., Heaney, L., Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C.
Reviewer(s): Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Justification:
This species is listed as Least Concern in because of its wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category. Also, found in secondary habitats and human dominated areas.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is distributed in much of South Asia, southern China and Southeast Asia. In South Asia, this species is presently known from Bangladesh, India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu) and Sri Lanka (Central, Northern Central, North Western, Sabaragamuwa and Western provinces) (Molur et al. 2002). It has been recorded up to 800 m asl. In southern China, it has been recorded from southern Yunnan, southern Guangxi, Guangdong and Hainan Island (Smith and Xie 2008). In addition, the type series of T. solifer Hollister, 1913, is purportedly from Beijing (Smith and Xie 2008). In Southeast Asia, it is widely distributed from Myanmar in the west, through Thailand, Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, to Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Bali, Nusa Penida, Lombok, Sumbawa, Sulawesi, Waleabahi, Sanana, Buru, Halmahera and Bunguran), the island of Timor (East Timor and Indonesia), the island of Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia), and the Philippines. In the Philippines it has been recorded from the islands of Biliran, Cebu, Gigante, Leyte, Luzon (Ilocos Norte, Nueva Viscaya, Pangasinan, Rizal provinces), Maripipi, Mindanao (Davao del Sur), Negros, Palawan, Sibuyan, Tincasan (= Tingkasan). Also reported from Lubang, Luzon (Abra Province) and Mindoro (Lawrence 1939) (Heaney et al. 1998). It is found from sea level to 150 m asl in the Philippines (Heaney et al. 1998).
Countries:
Native:
Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia (Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Myanmar; Philippines; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Viet Nam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is locally abundant or common and populations seem stable throughout its range.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is known from a wide variety of forested habitats in tropical regions, and has additionally been recorded from urban areas. It is found in hilly areas and roosts in caves, old dilapidated buildings, dungeons of old forts, temples, old disused mines, tunnels (Lawrence 1939; Sanborn 1952; Taylor 1934; Rickart et al. 1993; Heaney et al. 1998; Molur et al. 2002; Smith and Xie 2008). This species is colonial and roosts in colonies of a few to thousands of individuals. It is alert, agile and flies with a fast, straight pitching flight (Bates and Harrison 1997). A single young is born after a gestation period of 120-125 days (Bates and Harrison 1997).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species as a whole. In South Asia, the species is locally threatened by habitat loss, largely through commercial logging, conversion of land to agricultural use, hunting for local consumption and disturbance to roosting sites by humans (Molur et al. 2002). In the some countries, including Lao PDR and the Philippines, there is likely some localized hunting of this cave roosting species for food (Heaney and Balete pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species has been recorded from many protected areas. Within India, it has been recorded from Kanha National Park and Satpura National Park in Madhya Pradesh, Nagarjunasagar Srisailama Tiger Reserve, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary in Andhra Pradesh, Borivili National Park in Maharashtra, and may occur in many more protected areas (C. Srinivasulu pers. comm.). In South Asia, further studies are needed into the distribution, abundance, breeding biology and general ecology of this species. Populations of this species should be monitored to record changes in abundance and distribution (Molur et al. 2002). Public awareness activities need to be taken up to highlight the importance of this species in agricultural ecosystem as controller of insect pests (C. Srinivasulu pers. comm.).

Citation: Csorba, G., Bumrungsri, S., Helgen, K., Francis, C., Bates, P., Gumal, M., Balete, D., Heaney, L., Molur, S. & Srinivasulu, C. 2008. Taphozous melanopogon. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 August 2014.
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