|Scientific Name:||Sander lucioperca|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
Stizostedion lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Earlier knows as Stizostedion lucioperca and Lucioperca lucioperca.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
|Range Description:||Caspian, Baltic, Black and Aral Sea basins; Elbe (North Sea basin) and Maritza (Aegean Sea basin) drainages. North to about 65°N in Finland. Introductions began in 1878 in Great Britain, followed by Italy, Strymon drainage (Greece) and continental Europe west of Elbe, Ebro, Tagus and Jucar drainages in Iberian Peninsula, Onega and Severnaya Dvina in White Sea basin. Widely introduced outside Europe in Anatolia, North Africa, Ob and Amur drainages (Siberia), Lakes Issyk-kul (Kyrgyzstan), Balkhash and many smaller basins in central Kazakhstan.|
Native:Afghanistan; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Norway; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Large, turbid rivers and eutrophic lakes; brackish coastal lakes and estuaries.
Lives up to 17 years. Spawns for the first time at 3-10 years, usually at four. Spawns in April-May, exceptional from late February until July, depending on latitude and altitude, when temperatures reach 10-14°C in spawning grounds (lowest temperature for egg incubation 11.5°C). May undertake short spawning migrations. Individuals foraging in brackish water migrate to freshwater habitats (migrations of up to 250 km have been recorded). Homing well developed, even nearby populations may be relatively isolated. Males are territorial and excavate shallow depressions about 50 cm in diameter and 5-10 cm deep in sand or gravel, or among exposed plant roots on which eggs are deposited, usually in turbid water and at 1-3 m depth. Spawns in pairs, at dawn or night. Female remains over the nest while male circles rapidly around, at about 1 metre from nest. Then male takes a vertical orientation and both swim around swiftly, and eggs and sperm are released. After all the eggs are released female leaves the nest site. Male defends the nest and fans the eggs with his pectorals. Females spawn once a year. Feeding larvae are positively phototactic and feed on pelagic organisms after they leave the nest for open water. Piscivorous, feeding mostly on gregarious, pelagic fishes.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Sander lucioperca. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.|
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