Pistacia eurycarpa 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Sapindales Anacardiaceae

Scientific Name: Pistacia eurycarpa Yaltirik
Pistacia atlantica Desf subsp. kurdica Rech.f.
Pistacia atlantica Desf var. kurdica Zohary
Taxonomic Source(s): The Plant List. 2012. The Plant List. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: Pistacia eurycarpa Yaltirik is closely related to P. atlantica (Al-Saghir 2010).

It belongs to the secondary Gene Pool of Pistachio P. vera L. (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2013).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2014-01-01
Assessor(s): Rhodes, L. & Maxted, N.
Reviewer(s): Fielder, H. & Oldfield, S.
This species is globally assessed as Least Concern as it appears to have a stable population due to its relatively widespread distribution in temperate Asia and being one of the most common Pistacia species in Turkey (Kafkas et al. 2002). However, further research is needed to determine the exact population distribution, size and trend across the rest of this species' range. Implementing population monitoring and management and germplasm collection for ex situ conservation to ensure its long-term survival is also recommended.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Pistacia eurycarpa is native to Afghanistan, Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Syria (desert) and Turkey (eastern Anatolia) in temperate Asia; it grows at elevations between 1,100 m and 1,800 m asl (Babac 2004, Bakis et al. 2011, Al-Saghir and Porter 2012).
Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Armenia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Pakistan; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey
Additional data:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Lower elevation limit (metres):1100
Upper elevation limit (metres):1800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Pistacia eurycarpa is noted as one of the most commonly occurring wild Pistacia species in Turkey (Kafkas et al. 2002). This suggests that its population is stable, although additional population information for this species would be useful.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:According to the Turkish Plants Data Service (Babac 2004, Bakis et al. 2011) and Al-Saghir and Porter (2012), Pistacia eurycarpa is a perennial shrub or small tree that grows on rocky or stony slopes (shale or limestone) and in deciduous oak thickets.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Pistacia eurycarpa belongs to the secondary Gene Pool of Pistachio P. vera (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2013) and so it has the potential for use as a gene donor for crop improvement.

Simsek et al. (2013) state that this species is rich in fat, containing high levels of fatty acids (Demirci et al. 2001, Kafkas et al. 2007). Plant extracts have antifungal and antimicrobial effects, while oil extracts from this plant are used in some cosmetic soaps (Kordali et al. 2003, Alma et al. 2004). In addition, the oleo-gum resin has been used as a traditional remedy for skin diseases (e.g. jaundice and infections, as well as burns and scalds) (Demirci et al. 2001). The fruits are sold on a large scale as food or drilled to create worry beads, the leaves are used to brew medicinal tea and are also cooked into a chewing gum (Schafran et al. 2012).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The threats to this species remain unknown. It is harvested from the wild in some areas of its natural range (e.g. Schafran et al. 2012), however the extent and sustainability of this practice is unknown. Human impacts such as tourism, road construction and sewage pollution from local villages, as well as heavy grazing constitute threats to this species in the Zagros Mountains (Iraq) (Nature Iraq 2010), however it is not known whether these same threats are prominent throughout the species range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No accessions for this species have yet been recorded in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV Data Portal 2013) or the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), in the USA (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2014). However, according to Botanical Garden Conservation International (BGCI 2013) this species has a living collection in one botanical garden worldwide, although the origin and location of the collection is not detailed in this resource (garden locations are undisclosed to protect rare and valuable plant species). Pistacia eurycarpa has also been reported to be present in the Key Biodiversity Area (KBA) and Important Plant Area (IPA) of Sargalu in Iraq, which consists of forest steppe in the Zagros Mountains; although this area was deemed 'unprotected' in 2010 (Nature Iraq 2010), conservation issues have been identified and site specific recommendations to limit the effects of uncontrolled grazing and human intrusion (picnic areas, waste collection and regulation of agriculture and tourism) have been made. Research into whether these recommendations have been undertaken and monitoring of known populations, both in this area and across the species' range, is advised to improve in situ conservation for this species. Establishment of ex situ collections is also recommended.

Citation: Rhodes, L. & Maxted, N. 2016. Pistacia eurycarpa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T20678289A20694976. . Downloaded on 15 October 2018.
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