|Scientific Name:||Caranx heberi (Bennett, 1830)|
Caranx sem Cuvier, 1833
Caranx williamsi Smith, 1968
Scomber heberi (Bennett, 1830)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Smith-Vaniz, W.F. & Williams, I.|
|Reviewer(s):||Ralph, G., Harvey, M. & Buchanan, J.|
This species is widespread in the Indo-West Pacific. Although targeted by artisanal fishers, significant global population declines are not suspected. There are also a number of marine protected areas that intersect with its range. Therefore, it is listed as Least Concern.
This species is broadly distributed throughout most of the Indian Ocean, including East Africa and Madagascar (Fricke 1999), the Persian Gulf (Smith-Vaniz 1984), the northern Red Sea (Khalaf and Krupp 2003) to India and Sri Lanka, the Andaman Sea, and the Indo-West Pacific from Malaysia, Indonesia, Arafura Sea, southern Solomon islands, Fiji, Ambon, New Guinea and New Britain (Smith-Vaniz 1984, 1999, R. Myers pers. comm. 2016), north to southern Japan (Motomura et al. 2007). It is known from depths of 5 to 80 m (R. Myers pers. comm. 2015).
Native:Australia; Bahrain; Cambodia; Comoros; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); India (Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mayotte; Mozambique; Myanmar; Oman; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Qatar; Réunion; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; United Arab Emirates; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – western central; Pacific – northwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is relatively common in fish markets in some parts of its range, specifically in Sri Lanka and India (W. Smith-Vaniz pers. comm. 2015). |
In a survey conducted in the Thukela Estuary in South Africa, about 84 individuals of this species were sampled in February 1997 and none collect in February 1999 (Whitfield and Harrison 2003).
This species is considered the most common jack inshore on the southern coast of Oman (Randall 1995). In 2005, 6.4 tonnes of this species (0.1% of the total species composition) were collected by the Abu Dhabi Emirate fisheries. Catch totals peaked in 2009 with 23.0 tonnes, but followed by a decrease to 0.1 tonnes in 2012 (Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi 2006, 2010, 2013). CPUE of this species in Free Port, Western Abu Dhabi increased from a mean of 0.4 kg/boat hour in 2005 to a mean of 0.6 kg/boat hour in 2010. CPUE of this species decreased to less than 0.1 kg/boat hour in total catch numbers in 2012 (Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi 2006, 2011, 2013). This species is caught as bycatch in handline and trap fisheries off Abu Dhabi with the majority of the total landings occurring in the handline fishery. The CPUE between 2007 and 2012 in the handline fishery off Abu Dhabi is variable and shows no significant trend (total landings 2005 6.4; 2006 2.5; 2007 9.1; 2008 23; 2009 23; 2010 12.2; 2011 1) (S. Hartmann pers. comm. 2013). In 2005, 6.4 tonnes of this species (0.1% of the total species composition) were collected by the Abu Dhabi Emirate fisheries (Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi 2006, 2010, 2013).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in coastal, clear, open waters. Adults of this species commonly form small aggregations over rocky reefs and seldom observed in turbid or estuarine waters. This species diet consists of fish and crustaceans (Smith-Vaniz 1984). The maximum recorded length for this species is 88 cm TL (Allen and Erdmann 2012). For a 78 cm FL individual, recorded weight was 7.7 kg (Smith-Vaniz 1984).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is caught with hook-and-line, gillnets and other artisanal gear and is marketed fresh and dried salted (Smith-Vaniz 1984). This species is considered to be an excellent food fish (van der Elst 1993).|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no known major threats to species. Although this species is targeted by artisanal fisheries (Smith-Vaniz 1984) and is considered to be an excellent food fish (van der Elst 1993), there have been no observed or suspected declines in the population of this species due to exploitation events.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation efforts in place for this species; however, its range overlaps with a number of marine protected areas (IUCN and UNEP 2014).|
|Errata reason:||This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.|
|Citation:||Smith-Vaniz, W.F. & Williams, I. 2016. Caranx heberi (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T20430563A115376816.Downloaded on 19 January 2018.|
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