|Scientific Name:||Crataegus nigra|
|Species Authority:||Waldst. & Kit.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cde ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Leaman, D.J., Miller, R.M. & Scott, J.A.|
|Contributor/s:||Király, G. & Turonova, D.|
Global and European regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
EU 27 regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
Crataegus nigra is a species of hawthorn endemic to the Balkans and Carpathian Basin. This is a very rare species in all countries with known records. It is Endangered in Hungary and is likely to be Extinct in Slovakia. Threats include industrialization, clear cutting, rough forest management methods, forestation with alien species, overpopulated game-stock, introgressive hybridization, gene pool erosion and shrub clearance. It given a precautionary assessment of Vulnerable A2cde in both Europe (and thus globally) and the EU 27, as it is threatened or has disappeared across a significant portion of its range over the past several decades, and continues to decline. Although the population decline can't be accurately estimated with the data available, it may exceed 30% in the past three generations. More specific information on the current population size, trend and the overall rate of decline is needed, especially from Croatia, Romania and Serbia, to better quantify the population decline across its range. This species' habitat should be protected, unfavourable forest management methods improved, and game-stock and alien species controlled to protect declining populations.
|Range Description:||Crataegus nigra is endemic to central-eastern Europe and the Balkans (Kurtto 2009, USDA ARS National Genetic Resources Program 2013). There is very limited information about its distribution. It has been recorded in the Suvu Planina Mountains in southeast Serbia (Papp and Erzberger 2009). According to Kurtto (2009), it is not known from Montenegro, but it was reportedly widespread in the country in the early 1970s (Frqnjić et al. 2006). Confirmed records of the species are known only from Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Romania and Serbia (G. Király pers. comm. 2013).|
Native:Croatia; Hungary; Romania; Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia, Serbia)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The total population size is unknown, but this species is rare across its range. It is rare in Hungary and Serbia, very rare in Croatia and Romania, and extinct in Slovakia (Kurtto 2009, G. Király pers. comm. 2013). However, in Slovakia (and possibly the Czech Republic), its threat status is unclear according to Čeřovský et al. (1999); Marhold and Hindák (n.d.) list it as only occurring in cultivation in Slovakia. Although it is very rare and fairly unknown in Croatia, it is naturally widespread along the Danube river in Baranja. The population is endangered and declining in Hungary, where a majority of the subpopulations are found (Baričevič et al. 2004, Király 2007, G. Király pers. comm. 2013).
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a deciduous tree or shrub found in shrubland, gorges and forest edges in the Pannonian basin and Balkan Peninsula. It also occurs sporadically in closed forest stands, though it does not thrive there. It differs from other European species of Crataegus in that it is found in flooded alluvial habitats along major waterways and edges of poplar, ash and oak forests, where it usually forms small stands in the form of secondary hydrophilic bushy communities (Papp and Erzberger 2009, Frqnjić et al. 2006). Many Crataegus species are long-lived, with some living for hundreds of years; the generation length for this species is therefore likely to be from one to several decades.|
In Hungary, the forest habitat area has been reduced due to industrialization (Baričevič et al. 2004). It is also threatened by clear cutting, rough forest management methods, forestation with alien species, overpopulated game-stock, introgressive hybridization, gene pool erosion and shrub clearance (Bartha and Nagy 2004), as well as significant hybridization with Crataegus monogyna (Király 2007).
|Conservation Actions:||Crataegus nigra is classified as Endangered in Hungary, where a major proportion of its subpopulations are found; it is, however, protected in Hungary (Király 2007, G. Király pers. comm. 2013). It is listed as presumably extinct in Slovakia in the Euro+Med Plantbase (Kurtto 2009), though according to Čeřovský et al. (1999), its threat status is unclear. More information is needed on the overall population size and trends. Where the species is threatened, its habitat should be protected, unfavourable forest management methods improved, and game-stock and alien species controlled to protect declining populations.|
|Citation:||Khela, S. 2013. Crataegus nigra. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 March 2014.|
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