Somatochlora hineana 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Odonata Corduliidae

Scientific Name: Somatochlora hineana Williamson, 1931
Common Name(s):
English Hine's Emerald
French Cordulie de Hine
Taxonomic Source(s): Schorr, M. and Paulson, D. 2013. World Odonata List. Tacoma, Washington, USA Available at: (Accessed: 20 November 2013).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2018
Date Assessed: 2014-11-28
Assessor(s): Abbott, J.C. & Cashatt, E.
Reviewer(s): Cannings, R. & Tognelli, M.F.
Contributor(s): Paulson, D.R.
Somatochlora hineana has restrictive habitat requirements and is listed as Endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. It was listed as Endangered by Bick (1983) but downgraded to Rare (Bick 2003) after much additional information was available to him. On the positive side, additional populations are still being discovered, and as our knowledge of its requirements increases, the federal listing of this species will surely need to be downgraded. Based on mark/recapture work in Illinois and Wisconsin, there probably are >30,000 individuals globally; 20,000 of these may occur in Door County, Wisconsin (T. Vogt pers. comm. 1998). Currently it is known from 47 locations: one in Ontario, nine in Illinois, 20 in Wisconsin, 10 in Michigan, and at least seven sites in Missouri (Argia 1999, Zercher 2001). After early surveys, it has been searched for intensively and found more widely in Illinois and Wisconsin. Extent of occurrence is 338,857 km² (COSEWIC 2011) and area of occupancy less than 500 km².
On the negative side, there are fewer than 50 estimated occurrences, many of them threatened with habitat destruction or degradation. In addition, there are four historic occurrences in Ohio, one in Indiana, and one in Alabama (Zercher 2001), but there are no recent records from those states. All five Illinois populations are critically imperiled. One of the five Wisconsin occurrences is threatened (Zercher 2001). The fen-like communities that are its primary habitat are somewhat fragile. Nevertheless, it does not match any of the criteria to elevate it to the rank of Near Threatened.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This central North American species is currently known from 47 locations: one in Ontario, 9 in Illinois, 20 in Wisconsin, 10 in Michigan, and 7 in Missouri. It is apparently extirpated from Ohio, Alabama and Indiana, from which there are historic records.
Countries occurrence:
Canada (Ontario); United States (Alabama - Regionally Extinct, Illinois, Indiana - Regionally Extinct, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio - Regionally Extinct, Wisconsin)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Based on mark-and-recapture work in Illinois and Wisconsin, probably >30,000 individuals globally; 20,000 of these may occur in Door County, Wisconsin.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Somatochlora hineana occurs at shallow wetlands overlying dolomitic limestone bedrock; calcareous water from intermittent seeps, shallow small channels and/or sheetflow; may be only shallow sheet of water in depressions with at least slight current (flat or on slight slope). Usually fed by ground water and in wooded/shrubby landscape. The odd specialization of this species is its apparent requirement of burrows of a certain geometry in fens that essentially dry out in the late summer. Its burrows of choice so far have been those of a large crayfish, Cambarus diogenes, which for some reason does not consume the larvae.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Generation Length (years):2-4
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Narrow ecological requirements and vulnerability to habitat degradation and destruction (Cashatt and Vogt 2001). Extant occurrences are threatened by the following activities: petroleum refineries and other heavy industry, a proposed highway project, quarrying, urban non-point water pollution, and ATV use in Illinois; agricultural non-point water pollution (surface and groundwater) and recreational development in Wisconsin; urban development and invasive species in Ontario. Most significant threats are habitat/alteration/destruction from development of commercial and residential areas, quarrying, creating landfills, constructing pipelines, and filling of wetlands (Zercher 2001).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: S. hineana is still listed as Endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, despite ongoing surveys revealing its presence in more localities than many other non-listed North American species. It is also assessed as endangered in Canada (COSEWIC 2011), although not formally listed, and under Ontario's Endangered Species Act, 2007. Eight known extant sites are designated as nature preserves (public or private). Unprotected tracts in Wisconsin should be purchased. A recovery plan for United States populations has been drafted (Zercher 2001), as has a much more recent one for Ontario (Pulfer et al. 2013). Habitat should be managed in Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Missouri and Ontario. Development of an educational program bringing the species to the notice of the public would be of value everywhere it occurs.

Citation: Abbott, J.C. & Cashatt, E. 2018. Somatochlora hineana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T20342A65818147. . Downloaded on 25 September 2018.
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