|Scientific Name:||Carasobarbus apoensis|
|Species Authority:||(Banister & Clarke, 1977)|
Barbus apoensis Banister & Clarke, 1977
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv) ver 3.1|
This species has a fragmented but widespread distribution (with an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 60,000 km2) but its area of occupancy (AOO) is believed to be much less than 500 km2. Water abstraction is a strong threat to the species. If fishing pressure continues then fishing may also become a threat. It is believed that the available habitat has already decreased in area by 21-50% in the five years prior to 2002, and this trend might be continuing. Up to three independent subpopulations, representing three locations, might still occur. It is therefore assessed as Endangered. It should be noted that fieldwork in 2013 did not find the species despite visiting three out of six known locations (Hamidan and Shobrak pers. obs.).
|Range Description:||This species occurs in Saudi Arabia in the Al Ḩijāz mountain range in wadis draining inland or towards the Red Sea. The area of occupancy is estimated at less than 500 km2 (EPAA 2002). The species was originally known from six independent sites but was not found in 2013 at three sites visited. It might still occur at the other three sites.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The EPAA (2002) report stated that the population had been declining, estimated at a 20% decline in extent before 2002. Field work in 2011/2012 has shown that the species is reasonably well distributed in its range and is common but fishing pressure seems to be an ongoing and increasing threat (F. Krupp pers. comm.). Field work in 2013 ((Hamidan and Shobrak pers. obs.) did not find the species at three of the six known sites. It is therefore inferred, that there is a remarkable decline in the extent of this species.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in the upper reaches of wadis. It is found in shallow, permanent and slow running waters (Krupp 1983). The available habitat is estimated to have decreased in area by 21-50% in the five years prior to 2002, due to water abstraction for domestic use (EPAA 2002).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||This is a game fish.|
|Major Threat(s):||This is a relatively large species for the region, reaching up to 21.3 cm standard length and, along with Barbus arabicus, has become a popular game fish. Although they locally still occur in large numbers; the removal of the largest specimens from their natural subpopulations is adversely affecting their reproductive success. Other threats to this species include habitat loss, water abstraction and the impacts of droughts, according to EPAA (2002). Droughts, which reduce the extent and quality of available habitats, will make this species more susceptible to any other existing threats.|
A captive breeding program exists for this species. As of August 2012, the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, United Arab Emirates had a captive breeding population of over 700 individuals (J. Els pers. comm. 2012). The population has bred continuously since 2009, without new specimens being supplemented into the captive stock from the wild or other institutions (J. Els pers. comm. 2012).
Recommendations for conservation actions include management of habitat, monitoring and management of populations, further captive breeding programs and translocation. Public education and work in local communities may also be helpful. Supporting research needed includes taxonomic and genetic research, as well as biotic surveys and analysis of life history.
|Citation:||Harrison, I.J. 2015. Carasobarbus apoensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T203407A2764937.Downloaded on 18 August 2017.|
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