|Scientific Name:||Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Lag.|
Anacyclus freynii Porta & Rigo
Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus (Ball) Maire
Anacyclus pyrethrum var. microcephalus Maire
Anacyclus pyrethrum var. subdepressus Doum.
Anacyclus depressus Ball
Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Link var. pyrethrum
Anthemis pyrethrum L.
|Taxonomic Source(s):||The Plant List. 2015. The Plant List. Version 1.1. Available at: http://www.theplantlist.org/.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A3cd; B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rankou, H., Ouhammou, A., Taleb, M., Manzanilla, V. & Martin, G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Jury, S. & Allen, D.J.|
Anacyclus pyrethrum is a western Mediterranean species with a restricted distribution in Morocco, Algeria and southern Spain. Anacyclus pyrethrum is very local, uncommon and fairly rare in most of its sites and the abundance of the species varies from rare to occasional, although sometimes dominant at a few localities; most of the sub-populations are very fragmented.
The population trend of Anacyclus pyrethrum is decreasing, the number of mature individuals and the population density are significantly reduced during last decades and the species occurs often in small fragmented subpopulations. The population reduction is estimated to be 40% over the last three generation and is projected to continue declining by 30-50% in the future three generations due to many threats.
The estimated area of occupancy is less than 2,000 km2 and the species is under numerous medium to high impact threats, especially: over-collection for domestic uses and for trade, collection practices, overgrazing and human activities with an estimated continuing decline in the population size and the habitats quality on all the locations.
Therefore, Anacyclus pyrethrum is assessed globally as Vulnerable (VU; A3cd; B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)).
Anacyclus pyrethrum is a western Mediterranean species with a restricted distribution in North Africa (Morocco and Algeria) and southern Spain (Humphries 1979, Tutin et al. 1980, Greuter et al. 1984, Greuter 2006, Khela 2014, Euro+Med 2015).
In Spain, Anacyclus pyrethrum is found in two localities very close to each other in southeastern area, in the Sierra de Alcaraz, close to Peñascosa in Albacete province (Humphries 1979, Anthos 2014).
In Algeria, Anacyclus pyrethrum occurs in several sites; in the principal mountain ranges of Guelma above 800 m, Tlemcen, Mascara, Teniet, Aumale, Djurdjura and Constantine (Humphries 1979, Quézel and Santa 1963, Battandier and Trabut 1888). In Morocco, Anacyclus Pyrethrum is a very variable species and found in several major floristic divisions: Rif (Middle-West Rif, Chefchaouen, Assilenh Mountain towards Tazaout, Tizi-n-Lel valley), High Atlas Mountains (Oukaimeden, Tichka, National Park of Toubkal and Eastern High Atlas near Ayachi Mountain ), Middle Atlas Mountains (Tazzeka, North-Eastern Middle Atlas, Central Middle Atlas), North Atlantic of Morocco (Middle Sebou and Zaiane), Eastern-lands (Moulouya), Eastern Mountains (Jerada, Ben Yahya Mountain at 1,550 m altitude) and Anti Atlas mountains (Kest Ganc). (Jahandiez and Maire 1934, Humphries 1979, Dobignard 1989, Benabid 2002, Valdés et al. 2002, Mateos and Valdés 2003, Lamnauer 2005, Fennane and Ibn Tattou 2008, Taleb and Fennane 2008, Haroni et al. 2009, Romo 2009, Dobignard and Chatelain 2010, Valdés 2013).
Anacyclus pyrethrum has been cultivated and naturalised in several countries; e.g., Ukraine, France, Poland, Austria, Germany, India, Nepal and Pakistan (USDA 2012).
The estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is very large, however the estimated area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated 604 km2.
Anacyclus pyrethrum can be found between 400 m and 3,100 m altitude.
Native:Algeria; Morocco; Spain (Spain (mainland))
Introduced:France (France (mainland)); Germany; India; Nepal; Pakistan; Poland; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Anacyclus pyrethrum is very local, uncommon and fairly rare in most of its known sites and the abundance of the species varies from rare to occasional and sometimes to dominant in few localities; most of the sub-populations are very fragmented.
In Spain, Anacyclus pyrethrum is very local and very rare, known from only two subpopulations very close to each other (4 km), with a very low density, and the number of mature individuals is no more than 70 in each one. (I. Alvarez pers. comm. 2015).
In Algeria, Anacyclus pyrethrum occurs in small discrete montane population, very fragmented with low density and number of mature individuals (Humphries 1979, Quézel and Santa 1963, Battandier and Trabut 1888). In Morocco, Anacyclus pyrethrum is very local, fairly uncommon and populations size varies from rare (most of the subpopulations are small of less than 30 mature individuals in the Atlas and Rif) to occasional (subpopulations are small of less than 100 mature individuals in the Atlas) and sometimes to dominant (subpopulations are large of 300 to 1,000 individuals in Ifrane and some localities in Middle Atlas) (Humphries 1979, Dobignard 1989, Lamnauer 2005, H. Rankou pers. comm. 2015).
The overall trend of the population is decreasing, the number of mature individuals and the population density of Anacyclus pyrethrum have been significantly reduced during recent decades.
The population reduction is estimated to be of 40 % over the last three generation and is projected to continue declining by 30 to 50% in the future three generations due to various factors and many threats.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Typical habitats include grassland, banks, pastures, ruderal communities around azib (shepherd huts), rocky glades, rocky pastures, uncultivated land; ruderal fields, mountain plain, river banks, river beds, waste ground, stony places, woodlands clearings, low mountains pastures, woodland, road edges, steep hills and Mediterranean forest (Jahandiez and Maire 1934, Quézel and Santa 1963, Humphries 1979, Battandier and Trabut 1888, Dobignard 1989, Benabid 2002, Lamnauer 2005, Greuter 2006, Valdés 2013).
Anacyclus pyrethrum is a perennial geophyte deciduous plant; it grows in a range of soils from light sandy, gritty sandy to gritty medium loamy soils and prefers well drained acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) substrates; it prefers open and sunny habitats but can be found in mid-shaded habitats; flowers from April to June and grows in a humid, sub-humid to sub-arid Mediterranean climates (Humphries 1979, Battandier and Trabut 1888, Dobignard 1989, Benabid 2002, Lamnauer 2005, Greuter 2006).
The flowers of Anacyclus pyrethrum are hermaphrodite and they are pollinated by insects, birds, animals, water and wind. The propagation can be done by seed, by division of roots and by cuttings.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||5-6|
|Use and Trade:||
Anacyclus pyrethrum is used to treat many diseases such as speech disorders, respiratory edema, laryngitis, sickle cell anemia, epilepsy, depression, hearing disorders, phobias, anxiety, allergic asthma, salivation, low esteem, headache, rheumatism, neuralgia, toothache, paralysis of tongue or throat, relaxed uvula, chronic catarrh (Humphries 1979, Boulos 1983, Bellakhdar et al. 1991, Bellakhdar, 1997, Benchaabane and Abbad 1997, Lamnauer 2005, Sijelmassi 2011, Plants for a Future 2012).
Anacyclus pyrethrum is a pro-fertility and virility enhancing herb and evidence seems to confirm its traditional claims of fertility and libido enhancement as well as its role as a 'brain tonic' for the treatment of paralysis, hemiplegia, cephalalgia (headache), epilepsy, and rheumatism. It is also thought to 'purge' the body of toxins by stimulating blood flow to the brain and face, and causing increased salivation and mucus flow (Boulos 1983, Bellakhdar 1997, Lamnauer 2005, Sijelmassi 2011).
Anacyclus pyrethrum root powder is used as sternutatory, diaphoretic, one teaspoon of powder every morning is recommended to treat liver disease, nephritis and pyelitis by restoring, supporting and strengthening the kidneys functions. When the powder is mixed with olive oil is prescribed in rheumatism, sciatic, colds, nevralgy, paralysis, phthiriasis and vermin of the head and pubis. When the powder is trapped in a piece of cotton is scratched against gum in toothache and when its mixed with milk or honey is considered as aphrodisiac, and renders fertility to women. It is also used against moth or ringworm when it is mixed with cade oil. The powdered root forms a good snuff to cure chronic catarrh of the head and nostrils and to clear the brain, by exciting a free flow of nasal mucous and tears (Boulos 1983, Bellakhdar 1997, Lamnauer 2005, Sijelmassi 2011).
Anacyclus pyrethrum root increase saliva flow (sialagogue) via showing because of its aromatic smell and a persistent taste they stimulate the salivary glands, promoting a flow of viscid humors and relieving toothache, headache, lethargy, palsy of the tongue, rheumatic and neuralgic infections of the head. A gargle (two or three teaspoonfuls of pellitory should be mixed with a pint of cold water and sweetened with honey) infusion is prescribed for relaxed uvula, for partial paralysis of the tongue, lips and to soothe sore throats.
Anacyclus pyrethrum is also used as insecticide, anti-mycosis and the leaves may be applied as cataplasm (Boulos 1983, Bellakhdar 1997).
Anacyclus Pyrethrum is said to have:
• Anti-convulsive properties which are seen following oral ingestion in rats.
• Respectable anti-amnesiac properties.
• Increase phagocytosis of macrophages and prevent their immunosuppression
• Mitogenic effects, although it is not ascertained which cell populations are stimulated.
• Increase testosterone in otherwise normal rats alongside its fertility enhancing effects.
• Relatively potent libido enhancing properties which persist for a few weeks after supplement cessation.
• Increases in testicular weight and seminal parameters suggest increased fertility in male rats.
• An increase in prostate weight associated with this herb, possibly related to the androgenic activities.
Toxicity: Toxicological data is preliminary and currently it seems like the dosages used for supplements are not associated with any lethality but Anacyclus pyrethrum is not entirely free of toxicity and several accidents have been reported after some therapeutic uses. The toxicity symptoms are cephalalgia, tinnitus, pallor, nausea, epigastric problems, unconsciousness, severe skin inflammations, gastrointestinal mucosa and respiratory problems. It has been reported anecdotally and through practises that application of Anacyclus Pyrethrum to the skin causes reddening and warmth with some tingling and redness. (Crombie 1954, Auhman 1995, Bellakhdar 1997, Bendjeddou et al. 2003, Sharma et al. 2010, Gautam et al. 2011, Pahuja et al. 2012, Sharma et al. 2013).
Constituents: The main bioactives in this plant are the alkylamides similar to Spilanthes acmella. The chemical analysis of the roots shows that they contain three fatty acids, one sterol and ten unsaturated amides, specifically:
• 13 Alkylamides mostly based off of isobutylamide of which includes N-isobutyldienediynamide (Pellitorine or Pyrethrine) and Anacylin as the major alkylamides, phenylethylamide, enetriyne alcohol, N-(2'-p-hydroxy phenylethyl)-deca-, dodeca- and tetradeca trans-2, trans- 4-dienamides, inulin and polyacetylenic amides I-IV (Crombie 1954, Auhman 1995, Bellakhdar, 1997, Bendjeddou et al. 2003, Sharma et al. 2010, Gautam et al. 2011, Pahuja et al. 2012, Sharma et al. 2013)
The population of Anacyclus pyrethrum and the habitats are locally declining due to numerous medium to high impact threats, especially: ruthless collection for domestic uses and for trade, collection practices, overgrazing, agricultural intensification, deforestation and soil erosion (Barbero et al. 1990, Blondel and Aronson 1999, Benabid 2002, Blondel and Medail 2009, RBOSM 2008, Taleb and Fennane 2011).
Anacyclus pyrethrum is heavily collected by locals and collectors for domestic uses as remedy or to trade nationally with local herbalists (e.g. in Morocco 800-1600 Dhs/kg) and for International export (e.g. 78 tonnes exported in 2004 from Morocco). The premature exploitation and bad collection practices of the wild species are destroying the entire plant and preventing it from growing again.
Anacyclus pyrethrum is threatened more generally by the direct and indirect impact of human activities such as leisure activities, tourism, infrastructure development, management activities (direct effect by destruction of plants and indirect effect via alteration of habitat).
There are no conservation measures in place for Anacyclus pyrethrum. The species is cultivated successfully elsewhere where it has been introduced. However, the following actions are recommended to protect Anacyclus pyrethrum and its native habitats in the North African part of its range;
• Protection of sites from collection, grazing and trampling.
• Cultivated plants should be used in trade and for domestic use.
• Improve local practices of cutting and the time of collecting the species.
• The creation of protected areas to ensure complete regeneration of the species, ecosystems and to restore the quality of wild environments.
• Raising of public awareness and identifying priority sites for conservation.
• Ex situ conservation: artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collection.
• Monitoring and surveillance of the existing populations and sites.
• Estimation of population sizes and study of their dynamics, trends, biology and ecology.
|Citation:||Rankou, H., Ouhammou, A., Taleb, M., Manzanilla, V. & Martin, G. 2015. Anacyclus pyrethrum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T202924A53798702.Downloaded on 22 October 2017.|
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