|Scientific Name:||Morone mississippiensis Jordan & Eigenmann, 1887|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, large population size, and lack of major threats. Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable, or the species may be declining but not fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories under Criterion A (reduction in population size).
|Range Description:||Lake Michigan and Mississippi River basins from Minnesota and Wisconsin south to the Gulf, east to western Indiana and eastern Tennessee, west to western Iowa and eastern Oklahoma; on Gulf Slope in lower Mobile Bay drainage, Alabama, and from Pearl River drainage, Louisiana, to Galveston Bay drainage, Texas; introduced elsewhere in U.S; fairly common (Page and Burr 1991).|
Morone mississippiensis occurs in the upper Barataria Estuary (Fox 2010).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.|
Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.
Morone mississippiensis is subject to large population fluctuations (Carlander et al. 1952). Few individuals of M. mississippiensis have been collected from the Barataria Estuary (Fontenot 2006, Davis 2006, Dyer 2007) and their ecological role within the upper Barataria Estuary has not been described. Catch per unit effort was highest from February to April, indicating Morone mississippiensis use the upper Barataria Estuary seasonally (Fox 2010).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Moderately common in quiet pools and backwaters of small to large rivers, lakes, and reservoirs; prefers wide expanses of open water free of weeds; mostly restricted to lowland areas. Spawns in tributary streams or in lake over gravel or rock reefs in water 0.6-1.0 m deep. Eggs slowly sink.|
[Send most of time in fresh water; Send to FBU]
The maximum size for Morone mississippiensis is 27.5cm total length and 0.5kg in weight (Burgess 1978, Boschung and Mayden 2004). Lee et al. (1980) and Pflieger (1997) indicated that the life span of M. mississippiensis is up to six years however, specimens have been aged at eight years taken from Clear Lake, Iowa (Carlander 1997). This is a schooling species most commonly found in backwater pools and oxbows of the river systems they inhabit (Driscoll and Miranda 1999, Etnier and Starnes 2001). In Tennessee and Wisconsin females reach maturity at the age of three or four and males at the age of two (Priegel 1975, Carlander 1997).
Spawning occurs in large streams over gravel substrate during April and May and can extend until June in the northern most areas of their range (Bulkley 1970, Mettee et al. 1996, Becker 1983). M. mississippiensis spawn in Iowa when the water temperature reaches approximately 18°C (Bulkley 1970) and the most intense spawning occurs between 20-22°C (Becker 1983). This species is an asynchronous batch spawner (Grier et al. 2009).
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||This species is sought as gamefish (Harlan and Speaker 1956, Cook 1959, and Becker 1983).|
Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.
Hypoxic events occur in the upper Barataria Estuary which is within the range of Morone mississippiensis. The construction of flood protection levees prevent the upper Barataria Estuary from receiving annual flood pulses from the Mississippi River. The long term effects of this may reduce the species spawning habitat as M. mississippiensis requires fresh water to spawn (Fox 2010).
|Conservation Actions:||Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.|
|Citation:||NatureServe. 2013. Morone mississippiensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T202566A18236310.Downloaded on 23 March 2018.|
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