|Scientific Name:||Etheostoma vulneratum|
|Species Authority:||(Cope, 1870)|
Poecilichthys vulneratus Cope, 1870
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Least Concern because its extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations and locations, and population size are still relatively large, distribution is not severely fragmented, and the species probably is not declining fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories under criterion A.
|Range Description:||Range includes the upper Tennessee River drainage, western Virginia, western North Carolina, and eastern Tennessee (Page and Burr 2011).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by a fairly large number of extant occurrences (subpopulations). Menhinick (1991) mapped 15 collection locations in North Carolina and 6 in adjacent Tennessee. Etnier and Starnes (1993) mapped a few dozen collection sites in Tennessee; these represent probably at least 15 distinct occurrences. An estimated 5-6 extant occurrences exist in North Carolina, with a roughly estimated condition of 10% excellent, 70% good, and 20% fair (H. LeGrand pers. comm. 1997). Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) mapped a few dozen collection sites in several rivers in Virginia; not all of these locations harbor extant populations.
Total adult population size is unknown but apparently large. This darter has been described as common (Page and Burr 2011), though generally uncommon in Virginia (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). In North Carolina, it is locally abundant in the Little Tennessee River (above Fontana Reservoir) (Etnier and Starnes 1993) and extirpated from the French Broad River System (Rohde et al. 1998). It is locally abundant in the Clinch River (above Norris Reservoir) and Little River in Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993). Most other localities are represented by very few specimens, but this species is hard to collect and may be somewhat more common than existing records indicate (Etnier and Starnes 1993).
This species is extirpated in much of its historical range. Most of the decline occurred decades ago.
This species "apparently has not rebounded in the North Fork Holston River below Saltville after major reduction of pollution there, but has reappeared in part of the heavily stressed zone of the Clinch River below Carbo" (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but distribution and abundance are probably slowly declining.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes fast rocky riffles of small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 2011).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is sensitive to habitat alterations (Braswell 1991). It has disappeared from much of its former range due to the prevalence of impoundments on most rivers in the upper Tennessee River drainage (Etnier and Starnes 1993). It is moderately threatened by residential development in North Carolina (H. LeGrand pers. comm. 1997). Some populations have been lost in Virginia due to pollution or impoundments (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994, S. Roble pers. comm. 1997).|
|Conservation Actions:||Extant populations should be sought throughout the historical range.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Etheostoma vulneratum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 May 2015.|
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