|Scientific Name:||Etheostoma etowahae|
|Species Authority:||Wood & Mayden, 1993|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
Listed as Vulnerable because extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 sq km, area of occupancy appears to be less than 200 sq km, the species occurs in not more than 10 locations (counting the main stem river and eight occupied tributaries as single locations), and habitat is subject to ongoing declines in quality. Adult population size is unknown but may be less than 10,000.
|Range Description:||Range includes the Etowah River system (above and below Altoona Reservoir, in northern Georgia; Etowah River mainstem and eight tributaries: Amicalola Creek, Shoal Creek in Dawson County, Long Swamp Creek, Yellow Creek, Smithwick Creek, Stamp Creek, and Raccoon Creek (Freeman and Wenger 2006).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by populations in the mainstem river and 8 tributaries; within these streams the species is known from about 70 collection sites (Freeman and Wenger 2006).
Total adult population size is unknown but may be fewer than 10,000 adults. Population size at known sites is small. Many sites are represented by only one or very few individuals per sampling effort; significant numbers have only been found in a few localities, including the Etowah headwaters, Shoal Creek (Dawson County), Amicalola Creek, Long Swamp Creek and Raccoon Creek (Freeman and Wenger 2006).
Trend over the past three generations is unknown but distribution and abundance probably are slowly declining.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Adults typically occur in riffles of streams with moderate to strong current over gravel or cobble substrate (Wood and Mayden 1993). Warm and cool, medium and large creeks or small rivers that have moderate or high gradient and rocky bottoms; in relatively shallow riffles, with large gravel, cobble, and small boulder substrates; typically associated with the swiftest portions of shallow riffles, but occasionally adults are taken at the tails of riffles; most abundant in sites with clear water and relatively little silt in the riffles; shuns pools, intolerant of stream impoundment (USFWS 1993).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat has been reduced by impoundments, siltation, and pollution from municipal and industrial waste discharges, runoff from monoculture agriculture and poultry farms, poultry processing plants, and silvicultural activities (USFWS 1993, 1994). Habitat has been degraded also by increased urbanization in the Atlanta metropolitan area.|
This species would benefit from habitat restoration, improved habitat protection and management, and better information on distribution, abundance, and trend.
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Etheostoma etowahae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 September 2015.|
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