|Scientific Name:||Ephedra fragilis|
Ephedra dissoluta Webb & Berthel.
Ephedra fragilis Desf. subspecies dissoluta (Webb & Berthel.) Trab
Ephedra gibraltarica Boiss.
Ephedra wettsteinii Buxb.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bell, A. & Bachman, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hilton-Taylor, C. & Lutz, M.L.|
This species has a large Macaronesian and Mediterranean distribution, occurs in protected areas, has been collected recently and does not appear to be in decline from any threatening processes at present. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||E. fragilis has a Macaronesian and Mediterranean distribution. It occurs from sea level up to 300 m.|
Native:Algeria; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sicilia); Jordan; Libya; Morocco; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal (Madeira, Portugal (mainland)); Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland)); Tunisia; Western Sahara
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||300|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size is not known, but it has been reported as being very common on the Balearic islands.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A shrub, found growing in rocky arid areas, limestone cliffs, coastal dunes, rocky slopes, sandy areas, near sea or roadside. Flowers from March to May. Seeds are thought to be dispersed by animal consumption.|
|Use and Trade:||The stems of most members of this genus contain the alkaloid ephedrine and are valuable in the treatment of asthma and many other complaints of the respiratory system (Plants for a Future 2010). Other medicinal uses include antiviral affects, in particular against influenza, and it can be combined with other herbs to treat a wider range of issues. It is advised that E. fragilis be used with great caution, preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner (Plants for a Future 2010).|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats at present aside from general disturbance from human activities.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are many occurrences of this species in botanic gardens and an ex situ seed collection has been made as part of the Millennium Seed Bank project. It has previously been noted in the Red List of Malta and rated as Near Threatened in the Croatian Red list under subsp. campylopoda, however, this subspecies is now recognized as a synonym of E. foeminea Forssk. The distribution range intersects several protected areas.|
|Citation:||Bell, A. & Bachman, S. 2011. Ephedra fragilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T201689A9165802. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T201689A9165802.en . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.|
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