|Scientific Name:||Scardinius erythrophthalmus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Most European rivers north of Pyrénées and Alps, eastward to Ural and Eya drainages, Aral and White Sea basins; Black Sea basin in Europe and northern Asia Minor. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic basin, Italy, Greece south of Pinios drainage, Great Britain north of 54°N, Ireland and Scandinavia north of 62°N. Introduced to Spain and Corsica.|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Italy; Jersey; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat: |
Mainly nutrient-rich, well vegetated lowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes. Spawns on roots or submerged plants.
Lives up to 17 years. Spawns for the first time at 3-4 years. Fractional spawner. Spawns in April-July, when temperature rises above 15°C. Males assemble at spawning grounds and drive ripe females, often with much splashing, into dense vegetation to spawn. Eggs are very sticky. Feeds predominantly on plankton, terrestrial insects and plant material. Able to adapt to unfavourable environmental conditions by slow growth and small size at maturity (stunted populations).
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Scardinius erythrophthalmus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T19946A9112799.Downloaded on 28 August 2016.|
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