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Acacia aneura

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA MAGNOLIOPSIDA FABALES LEGUMINOSAE

Scientific Name: Acacia aneura
Species Authority: Benth.
Common Name(s):
English Mulga
Synonym(s):
Acacia aneura Benth. variety latifolia J.M.Black
Racosperma aneurum (F.Muell. ex Benth.) Pedley
Taxonomic Notes: Ten varieties are recognized by Pedley in the Flora of Australia Vol. 11B (Orchard and Wilson 2001). It consists of a large complex of variable intergrading and hybridizing forms, some included in these ten varieties, others regarded as separate species: A. ayersiana, A. brachystachya, A. craspedocarpa, A. minyura, A. paraneura and A. ramulosa. These are distinguished mainly by leaf and pod characteristics (Moore 2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2010-09-09
Assessor(s): Malcolm, P.
Reviewer(s): Hilton-Taylor, C.
Justification:
Acacia aneura is a widespread species occurring in most vegetation communities in inland Australia.This long lived shrub-tree consists of a large complex of variable intergrading and hybridizing forms. It is generally the dominant or co-dominant species in shrublands or woodlands and despite its large range it is easily killed by severe lopping and burning. It is currently listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Acacia aneura is native to Australia distributed in the states of Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales and the Northern Territory.
Countries:
Native:
Australia (Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Northern Territory, Queensland, Queensland, South Australia, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia, Western Australia)
Introduced:
India; Kenya; Sudan; United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Total population size is not known but this is a common species and consists of a large complex of variable integrating and hybridizing forms (Moore 2005).
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: A bushy shrub or tree, 1.2–10 m high widespread, occurring in most vegetation communities in inland Australia in a variety of habitat and soils. It often grows in pure stands forming open forests, woodlands and shrublands or predominant in vegetation with eucalypts, often with shrubby understorey (Orchard and Wilson 2001). Natural populations extend over an area of 1.5 million km2, chiefly in climates where the annual rainfall is 200-250 mm and range in elevation from sea level to 300 m. A. aneura can live for more than 50 years, it is drought-tolerant, but very fire sensitive (Orwa et al. 2009). It is an important fodder plant but is easily killed by severe lopping and burning. It is dormant during drought but recovers quickly after rain. It requires follow-up rain at the right time of the year for seeds to mature (Moore 2005).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Once used by Aboriginal people to make spears and long narrow shields called 'mulgas' and also one of the most important plant food sources. The seeds and pods were ground into an edible paste, the sap made into a sweet drink, or used as a resin for joining tool-parts and repairing cracks. Mulga was also used for its healing properties for colds and flu-like illness and in postnatal care. Mulga wood was also used extensively by the early settlers, particularly valuable for fencing, the production of charcoal and for building (Weber 1999). It is currently used in horticulture and apiculture as it is an important pollen producing species, important to beekeepers (Orwa et al. 2009)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no direct threats known to this widespread species, however, changes in fire regimes and increases in grazing presures could become important factors for the survival of this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: A. aneura is not listed as threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. It is known to occur in several protected areas across its range. The seeds for this species have been collected as part of the Millennium Seed Bank project. Seeds are located at: Wakehurst Place, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (UK) and Mount Annan Botanic Garden, New South Wales (Australia). The degree of variability within the species and integrading forms especially with other species towards the west of its range requires detailed investigation, both in the field and in the herbarium (Orchard and Wilson 2001).

Citation: Malcolm, P. 2012. Acacia aneura. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 December 2014.
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