|Scientific Name:||Trachinus draco Linnaeus, 1758|
Trachinus lineatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Carpenter, K.E., Smith-Vaniz, W.F., de Bruyne, G. & de Morais, L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B. & Soto, S.|
Trachinus draco is known from Morocco to Mauritania, to the Canary Islands and Madeira. Its range extends northward into the Mediterranean and Black Seas up the Atlantic coast to Norway and the northern part of the Danish Straits. The Greater Weever is a marine species commonly occurring and reproducing in Kattegat, and in the Baltic in the Belt Seas and the Sound. It is found at depths ranging from zero to 200 m. This species is locally abundant and widespread, and well researched. It is assessed as Least Concern.
Trachinus draco is known from Morocco to Mauritania, to the Canary Islands and Madeira. Its range extends northward into the Mediterranean and Black Seas up the Atlantic coast to Norway and the northern part of the Danish Straits (Whitehead et al. 1989). The Greater Weever is a marine species commonly occurring and reproducing in Kattegat, and in the Baltic in the Belt Seas and the Sound (HELCOM 2013 Red List Assessment Project). It is found at depths ranging from zero to 200 metres (Smith in press).
Native:Albania; Algeria; Belgium; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Denmark; Egypt; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Guernsey; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jersey; Lebanon; Libya; Malta; Mauritania; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Portugal (Madeira); Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovenia; Spain (Canary Is.); Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Western Sahara
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Greater Weever landings are declared from the following FAO regions: Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea. The overall trend in landings is one of dramatic fluctuations with a general increase in landings over time. The majority of landings are declared from the Northeast Atlantic fishing zone. Within this fishing zone, the majority of recent landings are declared by Sweden (FAO 2011).
In the Balearic Islands, T. draco was the most abundant member of the Trachinidae, captured with a 49% frequency of occurrence (Massutí and Reñones 2005). Trachinus draco accounted for 1.95% of the commercial catches taken in beach-seines in the Aegean coast of Turkey (Akyol et al. 2003). In a study of species and size selectivity in a Portuguese multi-species artisanal long-line fishery, T. draco was among the six species which contributed 81% of the total catch by weight, and there was no difference in size-selectivity detected (Erzini et al. 1996). In a study of length-weight relationships of fishes off the coast of Portugal, T. draco was the most abundant species collected. Individuals ranged in size from 11.8 to 39.6 cm, with a mean size of 24.3 cm (Santos et al. 2002).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Trachinus draco burrows in the substrate, from the coastline to about 200 meters depth, but more commonly between 20 and 50 metres, migrating into deeper waters (to 100 m) during winter. It is pelagic at night (Muus and Nielsen 2000). It is most abundant in waters of moderate salinity, and has a preference for sandy bottoms (Damalas et al. 2010). A study by Demestre et al. (2000) suggests that this species is characteristic of habitats which are directly influenced by seagrass meadows, primarily Posidonia oceanica.
The Greater Weever spawns during summer in shallow coastal waters with soft bottoms with sand or gravel. During winter it migrates to deeper area down to 150 m. This species often lays buried with just the eyes and tip of first dorsal fin exposed. The first dorsal fin rays, as well as the spine on the pre-operculum contains venomous spines protecting the species from predators. During night the Greater Weever leaves the burrow to feed on small invertebrates and fishes. Adults normally reach a total length of 25 cm.
Trachinids are littoral or benthic fishes which inhabit sandy or muddy bottoms, typically on the continental shelf but also at deeper depths of 150 to 200 metres. These fishes are typically encountered buried in the sediment with their eyes and venomous dorsal spines exposed. Envenomation can cause serious injuries or death. These fishes feed primarily on small invertebrates and fishes. Reproduction occurs during spring and summer. Eggs are oviparous and larvae are pelagic (Smith in press).
|Use and Trade:||
Trachinus draco is regularly found in local markets in Morocco, Canary Islands and Madeira. It is also found in some Spanish markets i.e. Huelva (J. Herrera pers. comm. 2014), Separate statistics are not reported for this species. It is caught mainly with bottom trawls and artisanal gear (e.g. traps, lines) and is marketed fresh (Smith in press). In the Black Sea, this species is mainly taken as bycatch with purse seines, bottom trawl, and gill nets (Ak and Genç 2013).
Trachinus draco is commercially important in parts of its range, and is taken as bycatch in trawl fisheries.
Trachinus draco is has not been and still is not in any way protected by legislation or management, although it moves little, grows slowly, has high catchability, and has been exposed to high total mortality (Bagge 2004).
|Citation:||Carpenter, K.E., Smith-Vaniz, W.F., de Bruyne, G. & de Morais, L. 2015. Trachinus draco. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T198719A42691954.Downloaded on 20 September 2018.|
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