Caranx rhonchus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Carangidae

Scientific Name: Caranx rhonchus Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English False Scad, Pollock, Spotfin Scad, Ten-finned Horse Mackerel, Yellow Horse Mackerel
French Carangue Jaune, Chinchard, Chinchard Jaune, Comète Coussut, Saurel
Spanish Carango Ronco, Jurela, Jurel Amarillo, Jurel Real, Macarela Real
Caranx angolensis Fowler 1919
Caranx rhoncus Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1817
Caranx ronchus Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1817
Decapterus angolensis (Fowler 1919)
Decapterus rhonchus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1817)
Decapterus ronchus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1817)
Taxonomic Notes: This species is likely to belong to a monotypic genus (B. Smith-Vaniz pers. comm. 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2013-05-10
Assessor(s): Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Montiero, V. & Camara, K.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B.
Caranx rhonchus is widespread in the Eastern Atlantic, and is considered common in some parts its range, particularly in warmer waters. Its range appears to be expanding since it recently appeared in the Balearic Islands and is becoming more abundant there. Subpopulations also appear to be stable in the eastern Mediterranean, according to experimental trawls. In the Eastern Central Atlantic, this species is widespread and is commonly seen in the markets. It is primarily caught in artisanal, industrial and pelagic fisheries. Reported landings to the FAO since 1994 are fluctuating but stable, with assumed stable effort  Although it is fished, the population has not declined. This species is considered Least Concern. However, as results from stock models are considered unreliable, as a precaution, additional increases in catches are not recommended.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Caranx rhonchus is found from the southern Mediterranean Sea to Morocco and south to Angola (Souissi et al. 2005). Its range is reported to extend south to Namibia (Bianchi et al. 1993). It is found also along the Alboran Sea. This species is known as Decapturus rhonchus in the Eastern Central Atlantic (Smith-Vaniz pers. comm. 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Algeria; Angola; Benin; Cameroon; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Cyprus; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; France; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Israel; Italy; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Malta; Mauritania; Morocco; Nigeria; Portugal; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Spain; Syrian Arab Republic; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Western Sahara
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Mediterranean and Black Sea
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):200
Upper depth limit (metres):30
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Based on FAO reported landings for scads not elsewhere inlcuded, landings peaked between 1970 and 1983 averaging around 11,000 metric tones per year. In 1985, landings declined in the region to around 4,000 metric tonnes per year and have remained more or less stable until present. Based on landings by countries in the region reported to FAO as the False Scad (D. ronchus), they are fluctuating but are declining from around 3,000 metric tonnes in the 1990s to around 2,000 metric tonnes in 2010.

From Guinea-Bissau to Angola, catch landings for Decapterus ronchus from 1994-2008 are relatively low, with a spike in 2001 of 300 metric tons (FAO 2011). In Mauritania, this species may be reported separately from Decapterus species but is not consistent. In the northern part of the CECAF region, no reliable results from models could be determined for Decepterus species, however, as a precaution, no additional increases in catches are recommended (FAO 2011).

In the Mediterranean, there is limited population information for Caranx rhonchus. It was reported for the first time in 1994 in the Balearic Islands and subsequently the abundance has increased (Grau and Riera 2001). The population appears to be stable in eastern Mediterranean (M. Bilecenoglu pers. comm. 2007), and it is relatively common in small sizes in Lebanon (M. Bariche pers. comm. 2007). It is caught in the Strait of Italy but is very rare there (A. Di Natale pers. comm. 2007).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is a pelagic and near-bottom species that form schools. It occurs frequently near the bottom, mostly in depths of 30-50 m, but can be found to 200 m. It is also pelagic and found near the surface at times. It feeds on small fish and invertebrates (Smith-Vaniz and Berry 1981). Spawning grounds are located in shallow waters (Overko 1979). It is a partial spawner (Overko 1979).

Maximum size is at least 60 cm total length and it is common to 35 cm fork length (Smith-Vaniz in press.). In Mauritania, average sizes are around 25 cm, with an average age of first maturity of 23 cm (Camara pers. comm. 2013). In Mauritania, reproduction starts in May goes through September, peaking in July.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This is a commercial species that could be caught with trawls and purse seines. It is utilized fresh, frozen, smoked, dried-salted and for fishmeal and oil (Smith-Vaniz in press). Landings in Ghana and Romania FAO Fishing Area 34 range from 10,000 to 50,000 t. It is occasionally collected for the aquarium trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

This species is sometimes harvested by commercial fisheries, and is occasionally collected for the aquarium trade. However, there is no current indication of a population decline.

In the Mediterranean it is caught as purse seine bycatch seasonally. It is also caught in beach and boat seines, and hand and troll lines. In the Eastern Central Atlantic, this species is caught in mixed-catch fisheries, cast-net, beach seines and purse-seines in estuaries. Small sizes are also taken with sardines with purse seines. It is also likely taken with small pelagic industrial trawlers. In Cape Verde, this fishery is very important, but dominated by Decapterus macarellus. There was a period that it was considered overexploited in Cape Verde since 1990. However, in Cape Verde, juveniles under 18 cm are currently not allowed to be fished (Montiero pers. comm. 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in marine protected areas.

Citation: Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Montiero, V. & Camara, K. 2015. Caranx rhonchus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T198641A43158835. . Downloaded on 22 July 2018.
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