|Scientific Name:||Paramyxine springeri|
|Species Authority:||Bigelow & Schroeder, 1952|
Eptatretus springeri (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1952)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Fernholm treats the genus Paramyxine Dean, 1908 as a synonym of Eptatretus Cloquet 1819 (Fernholm 1998, Fernholm and Quattrini 2008), while other authors treat Paramyxine as a valid genus (Wisner 1999, McMillan and Wisner 2004, Kuo et al. 2010). Eschmeyer and Fricke (2011) follow Fernholm's advice on this and place all Paramyxine species within Eptatretus. This results in some duplicate names: E. wisneri McMillan 1999 and E. wisneri (Kuo, Huang & Mok 1994) (formerly Paramyxine wisneri Kuo, Huang & Mok 1994); and E. fernholmi McMillan & Wisner, 2004 and E. fernholmi (Kuo, Huang & Mok, 1994) (formerly Paramyxine fernholmi Kuo, Huang & Mok, 1994). To resolve this issue, both E. wisneri McMillan 1999 and E. fernholmi McMillan & Wisner, 2004, as the more recent descriptions, need to be renamed.
The current IUCN Red List retains the genus Paramyxine until the above taxonomic work has been completed.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Mincarone, M.M. & Mok, H.-K.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B., Knapp, L. & Carpenter, K.E.|
This species is only known from a few specimens collected in the Gulf of Mexico. There are no known threats to this species. However, may be caught incidentally in bottom trawling fisheries within the shallower depths of its range. It is listed as Least Concern. More research is needed on this species distribution, population, biology, life history, and potential threats.
|Range Description:||This species is located in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (Fernholm and Hubbs 1981, McEachran and Fechhelm 1998).|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population of this species is known from only a few museum specimens.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is found on the continental slope at depths from 400-730 m depth.
The copulatory organ is absent in this species. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Patzner 1998).
|Major Threat(s):||There are no known targeted threats to this species but it is incidentally caught by bottom trawlers and possibly trappers. There are three deep-sea fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico for Rock Shrimp, Royal Red Shrimp and calico scallops and these operate at the shallower depths where species occurs. For example, the Royal Red Shrimp fishery operates from 250-475 m depth range within the distribution of the species (Stiles et al. 2007).|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures in place, but more research is needed on this species' biology, population size, distribution and the impact of bycatch from deep-sea trawling activities, in particular pressure from royal red shrimp fishery.|
|Citation:||Mincarone, M.M. & Mok, H.-K. 2013. Paramyxine springeri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 October 2014.|
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