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Rhinoderma darwinii

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AMPHIBIA ANURA CYCLORAMPHIDAE

Scientific Name: Rhinoderma darwinii
Species Authority: Duméril & Bibron, 1841
Common Name(s):
English Darwin's Frog
Spanish Rana Narigona, Ranita De Darwin, Sapito Partero, Sapito Vaquero

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2ace ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-11-17
Assessor(s): Carmen Úbeda, Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez, Esteban Lavilla
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable because of an observed population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the last ten years, based on a reduction in area of occupancy, habitat destruction and degradation, and possibly other unidentified threats.
History:
2004 Vulnerable
1996 Data Deficient
1994 Vulnerable (Groombridge 1994)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the austral forest of Chile and Argentina. Historically, it was distributed in Chile from Concepción Province to Palena Province. In Argentina, it is known from Neuquén and Río Negro provinces. It has an altitudinal range of 50-1,100 m asl.
Countries:
Native:
Argentina; Chile
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Recent surveys within the range of Rhinoderma darwinii in Chile reveal that some populations (including those in national parks and other preserved areas) have disappeared entirely (M. Crump and A. Veloso pers. comm.). In other areas, the density of frogs is much lower than 10 or 20 years ago (M. Crump pers. comm.). Forestry operations have destroyed large areas where northern populations were found. However, it was still abundant in at least some southern Chilean localities in 2003; indeed, it appears that the species reaches its highest densities in regions of the Archipelago, where habitat disturbance is minimal (M. Crump pers. comm.). In Argentina, this is a scarce species and appears to have declined at one site (Puerto Blest, Río Negro Province) during the past 50 years.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It generally occurs in the leaf-litter of temperate Nothofagus forests; it is also present in forest bogs. Females deposit eggs in the leaf-litter. When the larvae inside the eggs begin to move, adult males ingest the eggs and incubate them in vocal sacs. Larvae develop inside the male and emerge after metamorphosis. The species is not tolerant of habitat disturbance.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the north, the main threats are drought and pine forestry, while in the south it is clear-cutting of forest. Declines that have taken place in suitable habitat could be the result of other threats, such as climate change or disease (possibly chytridiomycosis, although this normally impacts species that are associated with water, and it has not previously been reported from Chile).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are several protected areas in the range of the species, though there remains a need for improved maintenance and protection of native forest habitats, particularly in the north. Close population monitoring of this species is required given the declines seen in suitable habitat. In Chile, it is listed as "Endangered" (En Peligro de Extinción) (Reglamento de la Ley de Caza, Chile, 1998).

Citation: Carmen Úbeda, Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez, Esteban Lavilla 2010. Rhinoderma darwinii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 August 2014.
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